XV.     Tobacco and Alcohol Use

Tobacco products are products made entirely or partly of leaf tobacco as raw material, which are intended to be smoked, sucked, chewed, or snuffed. All contain the highly addictive psychoactive ingredient, nicotine. Tobacco use is one of the main risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including cancer, lung diseases, and cardiovascular diseases.[1]

The consumption of alcohol carries a risk of adverse health and social consequences related to its intoxicating, toxic and dependence-producing properties. In addition to the chronic diseases that may develop in those who drink large amounts of alcohol over a number of years, alcohol use is also associated with an increased risk of acute health conditions, such as injuries, including from traffic accidents.[2]

Alcohol use also causes harm far beyond the physical and psychological health of the drinker. It harms the well-being and health of people around the drinker. An intoxicated person can harm others or put them at risk of traffic accidents or violent behaviour, or negatively affect co-workers, relatives, friends or strangers. Thus, the impact of the harmful use of alcohol reaches deep into society.[3]

The 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS collected information on ever and current use of tobacco and alcohol and intensity of use among women age 15-49 years. This section presents the main findings.

Tobacco Use

Table TA.1 presents the current and ever use of tobacco products by women age 15-49 years.  In Kyrgyzstan, ever and current use of tobacco products is not very common among women age 15-49 years. 11.8 percent of women reported to have ever used a tobacco product. The highest percentage of women who ever used a tobacco product was found in the Chui oblast (29.8 percent) and Bishkek city (27.0 percent), with a higher prevalence among women living in urban (18.6 percent) areas than in rural areas (8.1 percent).

Nearly 2.9 percent of women smoked cigarettes, or used smoked or smokeless tobacco products on one or more days during the last one month.  Among young women age 18-19 years the proportion that use tobacco is nearly 2.6 percent, while among women age 35-39 and 40-44 years it is 4.4 and 4.5 percent, respectively.


Table TA.1: Current and ever use of tobacco

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who have never had an alcoholic drink, percentage who first had an alcoholic drink before age 15, and percentage of women who have had at least one alcoholic drink at any time during the last one month, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Never smoked cigarettes or used other tobacco products

Ever users

Users of tobacco products at any time during the last one month

Number of women age 15-49 years

Only cigarettes

Cigarettes and other tobacco products

Only other tobacco products

Any tobacco product

Only cigarettes

Cigarettes and other tobacco products

Only other tobacco products

Any tobacco product1

Total

88.0

8.0

2.5

1.3

11.8

2.5

0.1

0.3

2.9

6854

Age

                   

15-19

94.9

3.0

0.7

1.2

5.0

0.9

0.0

0.2

1.1

1169

    15-17

97.0

2.0

0.0

1.0

3.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

694

    18-19

92.0

4.6

1.8

1.6

8.0

2.2

0.0

0.4

2.6

474

20-24

87.4

7.1

2.8

2.7

12.6

1.2

0.2

0.7

2.0

1214

25-29

85.3

10.2

3.4

0.9

14.5

2.9

0.0

0.5

3.4

1145

30-34

86.9

8.0

3.6

1.5

13.0

2.5

0.5

0.1

3.1

935

35-39

85.4

10.7

3.0

0.9

14.5

4.4

0.0

0.0

4.4

854

40-44

84.4

11.8

2.8

0.7

15.2

4.5

0.0

0.0

4.5

804

45-49

90.9

7.2

1.3

0.5

9.0

2.6

0.3

0.2

3.0

733

Region

                   

Batken

97.6

1.6

0.0

0.8

2.4

0.4

0.0

0.1

0.5

543

Djalal-Abad

98.2

1.6

0.1

0.2

1.8

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.2

1336

Issyk-Kul

89.7

8.8

0.7

0.3

9.8

2.4

0.0

0.1

2.6

469

Naryn

88.1

10.5

1.0

0.3

11.8

0.3

0.1

0.0

0.4

282

Osh Oblast

98.5

0.9

0.2

0.4

1.5

0.1

0.0

0.4

0.6

1277

Talas

96.1

3.8

0.0

0.0

3.9

0.5

0.0

0.0

0.5

333

Chui

70.1

20.6

6.0

3.1

29.8

8.1

0.1

0.5

8.7

1216

Bishkek City

72.7

15.8

8.1

3.1

27.0

5.2

0.7

0.2

6.2

1072

Osh City

96.2

1.9

0.8

0.8

3.5

0.3

0.0

0.2

0.5

326

Area

                   

Urban

81.2

11.8

4.8

1.9

18.6

3.5

0.4

0.3

4.2

2424

Rural

91.8

6.0

1.2

0.9

8.1

2.0

0.0

0.2

2.2

4430

Education

                   

None/primary

(90.2)

(3.3)

(3.3)

(3.3)

(9.8)

(3.3)

(0.0)

(6.5)

(9.8)

58

Basic secondary

94.0

3.8

1.1

0.8

5.7

1.5

0.0

0.0

1.5

941

Complete secondary

93.1

5.6

1.0

0.1

6.7

1.5

0.1

0.0

1.6

2813

Professional primary/middle

83.2

10.4

3.8

2.5

16.7

5.4

0.0

0.3

5.6

1258

Higher

80.2

12.6

4.6

2.5

19.8

2.7

0.4

0.6

3.7

1784

Under-5s in the same household

                 

At least one

91.5

5.9

1.5

1.0

8.3

1.0

0.0

0.2

1.2

3609

None

84.1

10.5

3.6

1.6

15.7

4.3

0.3

0.4

4.9

3245

Wealth index quintile

                   

Poorest

96.3

3.0

0.2

0.4

3.6

0.4

0.0

0.4

0.8

1245

Second

97.3

2.4

0.0

0.2

2.7

0.5

0.0

0.0

0.5

1292

Middle

94.0

4.4

1.0

0.6

5.9

1.3

0.0

0.0

1.3

1320

Fourth

83.1

11.1

3.8

1.9

16.7

4.7

0.0

0.6

5.2

1424

Richest

73.4

17.0

6.4

2.9

26.4

5.1

0.6

0.3

6.0

1574

Mother tongue of household head

               

Kyrgyz

91.0

6.4

1.3

1.1

8.9

0.8

0.1

0.2

1.2

4891

Russian

41.1

36.7

17.4

4.4

58.5

21.4

0.6

0.3

22.3

582

Uzbek

99.3

0.5

0.1

0.0

0.7

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.1

1074

Other language

90.0

5.9

1.7

2.4

10.0

3.0

0.0

1.2

4.2

305

1 MICS indicator 12.1 - Tobacco use

Cigarettes are the most popular tobacco product among women using tobacco: 2.5 percent of women (out of 2.9 percent of female tobacco users) smoked only cigarettes in the past month.  A positive association with wealth was observed: tobacco use among women living the two richest quintiles is more common. In the households with at least one child under 5, the percentage of female tobacco users is 1.2 percent. 

Figure TA.1: Ever and current smokers, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

Tables TA.2 presents findings on age at first use of cigarettes, as well as frequency of use. The findings show that only 0.5 percent of women 15-49 years old smoked a cigarette for the first time before age 15. Among women who are currently smokers, 31.7 percent smoked less than 5 cigarettes, while 13.7 percent smoked 20 cigarettes or more in the last 24 hours.. 

Table TA.2a: Age at first use of cigarettes and frequency of use

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who have never had an alcoholic drink, percentage who first had an alcoholic drink before age 15, and percentage of women who have had at least one alcoholic drink at any time during the last one month, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage of women who smoked a whole cigarette before age 151

Number of women age 15-49 years

Number of cigarettes in the last 24 hours

Number of women age 15-49 years who are current cigarette smokers

Less than 5

5-9

10-19

20+

Total

                 

Total

0.5

6854

31.7

25.6

29.0

13.7

100.0

184

                 

Area

               

Urban

0.6

2424

36.3

32.2

24.2

7.3

100.0

95

Rural

0.5

4430

(26.8)

(18.6)

(34.1)

(20.5)

100.0

89

Education

               

None/primary

(0.0)

58

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

2

Basic general

0.7

941

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

14

Complete secondary

0.4

2813

(35.8)

(16.0)

(37.2)

(11.1)

100.0

45

Professional primary/middle

0.9

1258

(23.8)

(18.6)

(39.4)

(18.2)

100.0

68

Higher

0.2

1784

(43.5)

(35.7)

(14.4)

(6.4)

100.0

55

Under-5s in the same household

               

At least one

0.2

3609

(30.7)

(31.1)

(32.5)

(5.6)

100.0

36

None

0.8

3245

31.9

24.3

28.1

15.7

100.0

148

Mother tongue of household head

             

Kyrgyz

0.3

4891

51.1

39.9

9.0

0.0

100.0

46

Russian

3.5

582

(24.8)

(21.0)

(37.2)

(17.0)

100.0

128

Uzbek

0.0

1074

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

1

Other language

0.0

305

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

9

1 MICS indicator 12.2 - Smoking before age 15

a - Figures by other background characteristics are not shown due to low number of cases per disaggregation category

Alcohol Use

Table TA.3 shows the use of alcohol among women. One out of ten women age 15-49 years had at least one drink of alcohol on one or more days during the last one month. Only 0.4 percent of women of the same age group first drank alcohol before the age of 15 while 57.9 percent of women never had an alcoholic drink. Among the younger age groups, the proportion of women who had at least one drink of alcohol before age 15 is higher than among the older age groups.

The highest proportion of alcohol use by women is found in Issyk-Kul (17.9) and Chui (16.5) oblasts and Bishkek city (16.8). Alcohol consumption is more common among women living in the urban areas, richest quintiles, among more educated women and has a tendency to increase with age.

Table TA.3: Use of alcohol

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who have never had an alcoholic drink, percentage who first had an alcoholic drink before age 15, and percentage of women who have had at least one alcoholic drink at any time during the last one month, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage of women who:

Number of women age 15-49 years

Never had an alcoholic drink

Had at least one alcoholic drink before age 151

Had at least one alcoholic drink at any time during the last one month2

         

Total

57.9

0.4

10.0

6854

Age

       

15-19

87.9

1.0

0.8

1169

    15-17

93.7

1.1

0.1

694

    18-19

79.4

0.8

1.7

474

20-24

68.8

0.8

4.2

1214

25-29

56.5

0.7

7.4

1145

30-34

53.5

0.0

10.4

935

35-39

42.4

0.0

16.5

854

40-44

39.6

0.0

19.6

804

45-49

37.9

0.0

20.2

733

Region

       

Batken

86.1

0.0

2.3

543

Djalal-Abad

61.2

0.0

9.0

1336

Issyk-Kul

48.6

0.2

17.9

469

Naryn

47.1

0.0

10.9

282

Osh Oblast

82.1

0.1

1.6

1277

Talas

58.1

0.4

7.6

333

Chui

37.8

1.1

16.5

1216

Bishkek City

36.8

1.0

16.8

1072

Osh City

69.8

0.3

4.5

326

Area

       

Urban

48.0

0.5

13.0

2424

Rural

63.3

0.4

8.4

4430

Education

       

None/primary

(82.2)

(0.0)

(0.0)

58

Basic secondary

87.7

0.7

2.9

941

Complete secondary

63.0

0.3

9.2

2813

Professional primary/middle

44.3

0.2

14.3

1258

Higher

43.0

0.6

12.5

1784

Wealth index quintile

       

Poorest

66.7

0.0

7.8

1245

Second

69.7

0.1

6.3

1292

Middle

66.8

0.3

6.3

1320

Fourth

54.3

0.6

12.1

1424

Richest

37.1

1.0

16.2

1574

Mother tongue of household head

     

Kyrgyz

53.5

0.3

9.9

4891

Russian

20.4

2.1

30.5

582

Uzbek

93.6

0.2

1.5

1074

Other language

75.2

0.6

3.5

305

1 MICS indicator 12.4 - Use of alcohol  before age 15

2 MICS indicator 12.3 - Use of alcohol