XII.     HIV/AIDS

Knowledge about HIV Transmission and Misconceptions about HIV

One of the most important prerequisites for reducing the rate of HIV infection is accurate knowledge of how HIV is transmitted and strategies for preventing transmission. Correct information is the first step towards raising awareness and giving adolescents and young people the tools to protect themselves from infection. Misconceptions about HIV are common and can confuse adolescents and young people and hinder prevention efforts.  The UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS) called on governments to improve the knowledge and skills of young people to protect themselves from HIV. The indicators to measure this goal as well as the MDG of reducing HIV infections by half include improving the level of knowledge of HIV and its prevention, and changing behaviours to prevent further spread of the disease. HIV module(s) were administered to women 15-49 years of age.  

One indicator which is both an MDG and the Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting (GARPR; formerly UNGASS) indicator is the percentage of young people who have comprehensive and correct knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission. This is defined as 1) knowing that consistent use of a condom during sexual intercourse and having just one uninfected faithful partner can reduce the chance of getting HIV, 2) knowing that a healthy-looking person can have HIV, and 3) rejecting the two most common local misconceptions about transmission/prevention of HIV. In the 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS all women who have heard of AIDS were asked questions on all three components and the findings are detailed in Table HA.1.

In Kyrgyzstan, 95.1 percent of the women age 15-49 years have heard of AIDS. However, the percentage of those who know of both main ways of preventing HIV transmission – having only one faithful uninfected partner and using a condom every time – is only 61.6 percent for women. Three in four women (76.3 percent) know of having one faithful uninfected sex partner and 68.8 percent of women know of using a condom every time as main ways of preventing HIV transmission.



Table HA.1: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who know the main ways of preventing HIV transmission, percentage who know that a healthy looking person can be HIV-positive, percentage who reject common misconceptions, and percentage who have comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage who have heard of AIDS

Percentage who know transmission can be prevented by:

Percentage who know that a healthy looking person can be HIV-positive

Percentage who know that HIV cannot be transmitted by:

Percentage who reject the two most common misconceptions and know that a healthy looking person can be HIV-positive

Percentage with comprehensive knowledge1,a

Number of women age 15-49

Having only one faithful uninfected sex partner

Using a condom every time

Both

Mosquito bites

Supernatural means

Sharing food with someone with HIV

Saliva by kissing with someone with HIV

Shaking hands with someone with HIV

                           

Total

95.1

76.3

68.8

61.6

67.0

58.2

82.2

72.4

52.9

80.9

30.9

21.8

6854

                           

Region

                         

Batken

95.8

77.9

69.1

61.6

59.6

45.7

82.2

70.4

42.3

75.8

18.9

12.9

543

Djalal-Abad

87.7

68.3

50.4

47.0

55.8

66.3

77.2

60.3

35.7

78.8

22.3

8.5

1336

Issyk-Kul

100.0

78.0

85.9

71.7

58.7

75.2

97.2

84.2

80.2

91.8

40.7

31.8

469

Naryn

99.4

69.3

68.8

63.2

64.1

79.8

88.7

84.4

70.4

88.5

44.7

27.6

282

Osh Oblast

96.4

84.6

82.0

77.1

77.4

60.7

83.3

72.7

47.6

76.8

36.2

32.7

1277

Talas

97.7

82.8

51.6

49.9

76.1

58.5

76.3

77.3

69.3

77.6

45.1

20.8

333

Chui

95.7

65.9

70.5

55.6

67.8

43.7

75.1

70.5

53.2

79.8

23.4

16.0

1216

Bishkek City

97.7

88.8

75.0

70.8

79.1

62.0

91.9

83.9

64.8

91.0

42.4

34.0

1072

Osh City

94.9

68.4

57.6

50.0

46.8

34.1

72.3

61.2

49.1

66.1

14.9

11.4

326

Area

                         

Urban

97.3

80.3

70.8

64.0

69.0

58.5

86.4

77.3

57.7

84.6

32.5

24.4

2424

Rural

93.9

74.1

67.7

60.4

65.9

58.0

80.0

69.8

50.2

78.9

30.0

20.4

4430

Age

                         

15-241

91.9

71.5

64.9

58.1

62.0

55.7

79.2

67.4

48.9

76.8

28.1

19.8

2383

15-19

87.7

63.5

58.7

50.9

58.3

52.2

75.3

61.4

43.7

72.3

24.8

17.0

1169

20-24

95.9

79.1

71.0

64.9

65.5

59.1

83.0

73.1

53.9

81.2

31.3

22.4

1214

25-29

96.7

79.9

69.1

63.1

70.7

58.6

83.9

75.9

53.3

81.9

31.5

22.0

1145

30-39

97.0

78.8

72.0

64.9

70.0

59.2

83.4

75.6

55.9

83.2

32.9

24.2

1789

40-49

96.8

78.3

70.8

62.3

68.5

60.7

84.3

73.9

55.0

83.8

32.4

22.1

1537

Marital status

                         

Ever married/in union

96.5

78.4

70.4

63.2

68.2

58.6

83.2

73.8

53.7

81.9

31.3

22.0

5356

Never married/in union

90.2

68.8

62.9

56.0

62.8

56.8

78.6

67.5

50.0

77.4

29.3

21.3

1498

Education

                         

None/primary

(49.2)

(26.7)

(27.1)

(18.4)

(21.0)

(13.0)

(22.3)

(16.2)

(15.5)

(22.2)

(0.0)

(0.0)

58

Basic secondary

86.5

63.3

58.9

51.5

57.0

46.1

69.7

53.5

34.3

62.6

19.4

13.0

941

Complete secondary

94.5

76.8

68.6

62.3

64.8

56.6

81.1

69.6

48.7

78.6

28.2

20.1

2813

Professional primary/middle

98.9

79.2

72.0

63.8

71.4

61.6

86.3

78.6

60.0

87.8

34.9

24.1

1258

Higher

99.4

82.0

73.2

65.8

74.1

66.2

89.7

84.3

65.4

91.2

39.3

28.2

1784

Wealth index quintiles

                         

Poorest

92.0

75.0

63.6

58.3

61.1

55.9

81.5

68.0

46.2

76.9

27.0

17.1

1245

Second

93.2

74.7

66.9

60.7

62.5

58.0

78.1

67.5

44.9

75.5

27.1

18.5

1292

Middle

95.0

75.4

68.7

61.7

68.3

56.1

80.0

67.9

50.8

78.2

29.4

19.8

1320

Fourth  

96.7

74.6

72.2

62.4

68.3

56.8

82.9

73.9

56.8

82.7

33.1

24.3

1424

Richest

97.8

80.9

71.3

64.4

73.1

63.3

87.5

82.4

62.8

89.2

36.3

27.7

1574

Mother tongue of household head

                       

Kyrgyz

96.5

78.0

69.6

62.6

66.8

60.3

84.2

75.0

54.9

83.1

31.8

21.9

4891

Russian

99.9

81.5

78.9

69.2

80.5

66.0

89.8

86.2

72.0

92.1

45.6

34.0

582

Uzbek

90.4

71.1

63.0

57.0

62.1

50.5

75.3

58.2

37.3

69.9

22.2

16.7

1074

Other language

80.6

56.8

56.6

49.1

61.2

37.1

60.6

55.2

36.9

62.5

19.1

14.7

305

1 MICS indicator 9.1; MDG indicator 6.3 - Knowledge about HIV prevention among young women

a Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention is the knowledge of all of the following: (1) that the chance of getting HIV can be reduced by having only one faithful uninfected partner and using a condom every time (two main ways of HIV prevention), (2) that a healthy looking person can be HIV-positive, and (3) that HIV cannot be transmitted by saliva by kissing with someone with HIV and by mosquito bites (the two most common misconceptions among women age 15-49 years in Kyrgyzstan according to this survey).



Table HA.1 also presents the percentage of women who can correctly identify misconceptions concerning HIV. The indicator is based on the two most common and relevant misconceptions in Kyrgyzstan, that HIV can be transmitted by mosquito bites, or through saliva by kissing with someone with HIV. The tables also provide information on whether women know that HIV cannot be transmitted by supernatural means, by sharing food or shaking hands with someone with HIV.

Overall, 30.9 percent of women age 15-49 reject the two most common misconceptions and know that a healthy-looking person can be HIV-positive. About 52.9 percent of women this age know that HIV cannot be transmitted through saliva by kissing with someone with HIV, and 58.2 percent of women know that HIV cannot be transmitted by mosquito bites. The majority of women know that HIV cannot be transmitted by supernatural means (82.2 percent), or by shaking hands with someone with HIV (80.9 percent), while 67.0 percent of women know that a healthy-looking person can be HIV-positive. 

The percentage of women who reject the two most common misconceptions and knows that a healthy-looking person can be HIV-positive is lowest in Osh city (14.9 percent) and the Batken oblast (18.9), while in the Talas and Naryn oblasts the percentage is highest (45.1 and 44.7, respectively). 

Figure HA.1: Women with comprehensive knowledge of HIV transmission, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

Women who have comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention include those who know of the two main ways of HIV prevention (having only one faithful uninfected partner and using a condom every time), who know that a healthy looking person can be HIV-positive, and who reject the two most common misconceptions.

Overall, only 21.8 percent of women had comprehensive knowledge of HIV. This proportion was the lowest among women age 15-19 years (17.0 percent). Comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was higher amongst women age 15-49 years in urban areas (24.4 percent) compared to their rural counterparts (20.4 percent). Comprehensive knowledge was least in the Djalal-Abad oblast (8.5 percent) and highest in Bishkek city (34.0 percent). Results suggest that there is a correlation between age and HIV knowledge as older women were more likely to know about HIV than younger women. Knowledge increased with woman’s education and household wealth quintile.

Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission

 

Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV is also an important first step for women to seek HIV testing when they are pregnant to avoid infection in the baby. Women should know that HIV can be transmitted during pregnancy, during delivery, and through breastfeeding. The level of knowledge among women age 15-49 years concerning mother-to-child transmission is presented in Table HA.2.

Overall, 90.6 percent of women know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child. The percentage of women who know all three ways of mother-to-child transmission is 64.2 percent, while 4.5 percent of women did not know of any specific way. The least known way of mother-to-child HIV transmission among women is breastfeeding (69 percent), while transmission during pregnancy has been identified most often (87.4 percent).

The most informed about the three ways of mother-to-child HIV transmission are women from

The Osh oblast (89.9 percent). The lowest value was found in the Chui oblast, only 39.6 percent. Awareness level is slightly lower in urban areas than in rural areas  (59.1 percent and 67.1 percent, respectively).  Awareness is notably higher among ever married women (68.3percent) as opposed to never married women (49.5 percent).

Higher levels of women’s education are also associated with greater awareness of the ways of mother-to-child HIV transmission; 63.2 percent of women with higher education know all three ways, while among those with basic secondary education the percentage is 56.6 percent.

 

Table HA.2: Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who correctly identify means of HIV transmission from mother to child, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage of women age 15-49 who have heard of AIDS and:

 

Number of women age 15-49

Know HIV can be transmitted from mother to child:

Do not know any of the specific means of HIV transmission from mother to child

Percentage who know HIV can be transmitted from mother to child

During pregnancy

During delivery

By breast-feeding

By at least one of the three means

By all three means1

                 

Total

87.4

83.2

69.0

90.6

64.2

4.5

90.6

6854

                 

Region

               

Batken

87.8

68.2

60.0

92.0

48.5

3.8

92.0

543

Djalal-Abad

82.4

84.5

73.0

86.6

69.8

1.1

86.6

1336

Issyk-Kul

88.5

89.5

74.7

92.7

71.0

7.3

92.7

469

Naryn

95.5

91.9

84.8

97.4

81.3

2.1

97.4

282

Osh Oblast

92.2

90.6

92.0

93.4

89.9

3.0

93.4

1277

Talas

89.6

84.1

72.6

91.0

69.1

6.7

91.0

333

Chui

81.6

72.4

47.0

86.6

39.6

9.2

86.6

1216

Bishkek City

92.8

88.4

54.6

94.2

51.8

3.5

94.2

1072

Osh City

80.9

79.1

80.8

87.4

70.3

7.5

87.4

326

Area

               

Urban

89.6

85.7

64.0

92.9

59.1

4.4

92.9

2424

Rural

86.2

81.8

71.7

89.3

67.1

4.6

89.3

4430

Age group

               

15-24

79.3

73.8

63.9

83.2

58.2

8.7

83.2

2383

15-19

71.3

64.7

55.8

74.8

50.2

12.8

74.8

1169

20-24

87.0

82.5

71.8

91.3

65.8

4.6

91.3

1214

25-29

89.9

85.9

69.9

93.3

64.8

3.4

93.3

1145

30-39

91.8

89.2

72.1

95.3

68.1

1.7

95.3

1789

40-49

92.9

88.9

72.5

94.5

68.8

2.2

94.5

1537

Marital status

               

Ever married/in union

90.8

87.5

72.9

93.9

68.3

2.6

93.9

5356

Never married/in union

75.2

67.9

54.8

78.7

49.5

11.5

78.7

1498

Education

               

None/primary

(24.6)

(27.5)

(23.9)

(38.2)

(14.1)

(11.0)

(38.2)

58

Basic secondary

74.9

68.8

61.2

77.6

56.6

8.9

77.6

941

Complete secondary

87.6

83.9

72.1

90.9

67.3

3.7

90.9

2813

Professional primary/middle

92.2

85.7

72.1

95.3

66.9

3.5

95.3

1258

Higher

92.3

89.7

67.5

95.4

63.2

4.0

95.4

1784

Wealth index quintiles

               

Poorest

86.2

80.2

73.6

88.5

69.0

3.5

88.5

1245

Second

85.2

83.0

77.5

88.7

72.9

4.5

88.7

1292

Middle

88.0

84.2

73.0

91.2

68.8

3.8

91.2

1320

Fourth  

88.7

83.0

66.0

92.0

60.3

4.7

92.0

1424

Richest

88.4

85.1

57.6

92.1

53.1

5.7

92.1

1574

Mother tongue of household head

               

Kyrgyz

89.0

85.4

70.9

92.0

66.4

4.4

92.0

4891

Russian

91.8

83.0

52.3

94.8

47.4

5.1

94.8

582

Uzbek

83.0

79.4

74.3

86.4

69.7

4.0

86.4

1074

Other language

67.8

61.5

50.1

73.9

42.4

6.7

73.9

305

1 MICS indicator 9.2 - Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV


 

Accepting Attitudes toward People Living with HIV

The indicators on attitudes toward people living with HIV measure stigma and discrimination in the community. Stigma and discrimination are considered low if respondents report an accepting attitude on the following four questions: 1) would care for a family member with AIDS in own home; 2) would buy fresh vegetables from a vendor who is HIV-positive; 3) thinks that a female teacher who is HIV-positive should be allowed to teach in school; and 4) would not want to keep it a secret if a family member is HIV-positive.

Table HA.3: Accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who have heard of AIDS who express an accepting attitude towards people living with HIV, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage of women who:

Number of women age 15-49 who have heard of AIDS

Are willing to care for a family member with AIDS in own home

Would buy fresh vegetables from a shopkeeper or vendor who is HIV-positive

Believe that a female teacher who is HIV-positive and is not sick should be allowed to continue teaching

Would not want to keep secret that a family member is HIV-positive

Agree with at least one accepting attitude

Express accepting attitudes on all four indicators1

               

Total

59.3

16.8

25.0

34.7

82.8

2.4

6518

Region

             

Batken

46.4

14.5

26.2

71.8

90.5

3.8

520

Djalal-Abad

64.6

20.1

24.5

35.8

82.4

3.1

1171

Issyk-Kul

61.0

17.3

29.7

57.5

88.4

8.1

469

Naryn

62.3

41.8

49.7

28.1

85.6

6.1

281

Osh Oblast

54.9

13.1

12.6

26.8

79.1

0.0

1231

Talas

51.1

23.3

29.3

38.3

73.5

0.9

326

Chui

66.7

9.6

21.3

25.2

86.8

0.5

1164

Bishkek City

60.3

17.1

31.3

21.4

78.1

2.3

1048

Osh City

49.9

17.5

31.8

47.2

85.3

3.2

309

Area

             

Urban

60.7

18.6

29.9

32.5

82.4

3.4

2359

Rural

58.5

15.7

22.1

35.9

83.0

1.8

4160

Age

             

15-24

55.7

15.1

22.3

33.3

79.2

2.4

2189

15-19

51.8

13.7

18.4

32.9

75.1

2.5

1025

20-24

59.2

16.4

25.8

33.6

82.8

2.3

1165

25-29

58.6

16.2

25.7

35.6

83.9

1.8

1107

30-39

60.0

17.3

25.8

35.5

84.4

2.1

1735

40-49

64.2

18.9

27.2

35.1

85.3

3.1

1487

Marital status

             

Ever married/in union

61.0

17.1

25.9

35.6

84.6

2.4

5168

Never married/in union

52.6

15.4

21.3

31.1

75.9

2.3

1351

Education

             

None/primary

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

29

Basic secondary

54.5

11.3

16.4

31.0

76.4

1.4

814

Complete secondary

56.8

14.8

20.5

37.3

82.4

1.5

2659

Professional primary/middle

63.3

19.3

30.2

37.2

86.2

3.6

1244

Higher

62.5

20.6

32.2

30.5

83.8

3.2

1773

Wealth index quintiles

             

Poorest

52.0

15.6

24.4

42.5

81.3

2.4

1145

Second

59.1

15.7

19.8

40.0

83.8

2.5

1204

Middle

57.7

15.5

22.5

35.4

82.8

1.2

1254

Fourth  

61.3

16.1

22.1

30.3

82.5

1.6

1376

Richest

64.3

20.1

34.0

28.0

83.2

3.8

1539

Mother tongue of household head

             

Kyrgyz

58.6

17.5

24.5

36.2

82.7

2.6

4718

Russian

73.0

22.5

40.8

20.4

87.6

4.4

582

Uzbek

55.7

11.6

18.7

34.9

80.1

0.6

971

Other language

54.5

9.8

20.1

38.4

83.3

0.8

246

1 MICS indicator 9.3 - Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV

Figure HA.2: Accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

Table HA.3 presents the attitudes of women towards people living with HIV. In Kyrgyzstan, 82.8 percent of women who have heard of AIDS agree with at least one accepting statement. The most common accepting attitude is willingness to care for a family member with AIDS in own home: 59.3 of respondents agree with this, with the lowest percentage of such respondents found in the Batken oblast (46.4 percent), and the highest percentage found in the Chui oblast (66.7 percent).

The findings indicate that only 16.8 percent of women are willing to buy fresh vegetables from a shopkeeper or vendor who is HIV-positive; the highest percentage of women with accepting attitudes on this matter was found in the Naryn oblast (41.8 percent) and the lowest in the Chui oblast (9.6 percent).

Overall, 25.0 percent of respondents believe that a female teacher who is HIV-positive and is not sick should be allowed to continue teaching; this attitude is expressed by 29.9 percent of urban respondents and 22.1 percent of rural respondents. In general, women that are more educated and those from the richest quintile have more accepting attitudes than the ones with lower education and a poorer wealth status. The percentage of accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS increases with age considerably as shown in Figure HA.2. Only 2.4 percent of women express accepting attitudes on all four indicators.

Knowledge of a Place for HIV Testing, Counselling and Testing during Antenatal Care

Another important indicator is the knowledge of where to be tested for HIV and use of such services. In order to protect themselves and to prevent infecting others, it is important for individuals to know their HIV status. Knowledge of own status is also a critical factor in the decision to seek treatment. Questions related to knowledge of a facility for HIV testing and whether a person has ever been tested are presented in Table HA.4

Table HA.4: Knowledge of a place for HIV testing

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who know where to get an HIV test, percentage who have ever been tested, percentage who have ever been tested and know the result of the most recent test, percentage who have been tested in the last 12 months, and percentage who have been tested in the last 12 months and know the result, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage of women who:

Number of women age 15-49

Know a place to get tested1

Have ever been tested

Have ever been tested and know the result of the most recent test

Have been tested in the last 12 months

Have been tested in the last 12 months and know the result2

             

Total

79.0

67.2

58.8

21.5

19.9

6854

             

Region

           

Batken

72.4

61.5

44.4

21.7

18.6

543

Djalal-Abad

75.3

57.7

51.8

24.4

23.2

1336

Issyk-Kul

78.9

65.6

58.1

17.2

15.8

469

Naryn

86.9

74.9

66.0

31.7

30.2

282

Osh Oblast

83.2

72.4

58.5

22.1

19.0

1277

Talas

89.5

80.9

74.1

28.2

26.3

333

Chui

79.2

68.1

61.5

18.0

16.9

1216

Bishkek City

78.0

69.1

65.5

17.8

17.5

1072

Osh City

73.5

68.2

59.0

22.0

20.9

326

Area

           

Urban

80.5

69.6

62.8

21.3

20.2

2424

Rural

78.2

66.0

56.5

21.6

19.7

4430

Age

           

15-24

61.8

43.1

37.4

22.5

20.2

2383

15-19

42.9

17.8

15.5

11.5

10.5

1169

20-24

80.0

67.6

58.6

33.1

29.5

1214

25-29

91.1

85.4

75.2

32.9

30.8

1145

30-39

88.0

82.7

72.7

21.4

20.0

1789

40-49

86.2

73.1

63.3

11.4

11.1

1537

Marital status

           

Ever married/in union

88.4

81.3

70.6

25.9

23.9

5356

Never married/in union

45.4

17.1

16.3

5.7

5.6

1498

Education

           

None/primary

(34.5)

(34.5)

(16.3)

(6.8)

(3.5)

58

Basic secondary

59.7

45.5

36.8

13.6

11.6

941

Complete secondary

77.5

66.8

56.3

19.9

18.0

2813

Professional primary/middle

86.0

73.7

66.6

24.7

23.3

1258

Higher

88.1

75.9

70.0

26.4

25.2

1784

Wealth index quintiles

           

Poorest

72.0

61.2

46.7

18.9

16.4

1245

Second

79.8

68.5

59.9

25.0

23.2

1292

Middle

78.4

66.1

57.4

22.4

20.4

1320

Fourth  

79.0

67.5

60.1

19.3

17.9

1424

Richest

84.3

71.6

67.3

21.8

21.2

1574

Mother tongue of household head

           

Kyrgyz

80.0

68.4

60.2

22.4

20.7

4891

Russian

87.0

71.7

67.7

17.2

17.2

582

Uzbek

75.3

63.8

53.1

21.6

19.4

1074

Other language

60.5

52.5

38.6

14.7

12.7

305

1 MICS indicator 9.4 - Women who know where to be tested for HIV

2 MICS indicator 9.5 - Women who have been tested for HIV and know the results

In Kyrgyzstan, 79 percent of women knew where to be tested; awareness level was practicaly the same in urban and rural areas.  Across oblasts, the highest level was observed in Talas and the lowest in Batken (89.5 and 75.4 percent, respectively). The most aware are women from the age group 25-29 (91.1 percent) and women married/in union (88.4 percent).  With respect to the mother tongue of the household head, the lowest percentage was found in households whose head speaks a mother tongue other than Kyrgyz, Uzbek or Russian – 60.5 percent, which is almost 20 percent less than the national average.

More than two thirds (67.2 percent) of women in the country have actually been tested and 58.8 percent know the result of their most recent test. One out of five women (21.5 percent) was tested in the past 12 months and almost all of these women of them know the results (19.9 percent).  Ever married or in union women have been tested in the last 12 months and told the results (23.9 percent) much more often than those who have never been married (5.6 percent).  Women living in the Naryn oblast (30.2 percent) were tested in the last 12 months and told the results twice as often as those living in the in Issyk-Kul oblast (15.8 percent). Table HA.4 shows that more educated women have been tested and told results more often than the ones with lower education. 

Table HA.5: HIV counselling and testing during antenatal care

Percentage of women age 15-49 with a live birth in the last 2 years who received antenatal care from a health professional during the last pregnancy, percentage who received HIV counselling, percentage who were offered and tested for HIV, percentage who were offered, tested and received the results of the HIV test, and percentage who received counselling and were offered, accepted and received the results of the HIV test, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage of women who:

Number of women age 15-49 with a live birth in the last 2 years

Received antenatal care from a health care professional for last pregnancy

Received HIV counselling during antenatal care1

Were offered an HIV test and were tested for HIV during antenatal care

Were offered an HIV test and were tested for HIV during antenatal care, and received the results2

Received HIV counselling, were offered an HIV test, accepted and received the results

             

Total

98.4

73.4

89.0

78.2

64.4

1675

             

Region

           

Batken

98.9

70.4

80.3

50.1

40.5

148

Djalal-Abad

99.0

71.2

89.6

78.8

66.8

351

Issyk-Kul

96.5

91.6

91.4

85.7

82.4

97

Naryn

97.4

81.4

83.7

78.6

69.7

56

Osh Oblast

97.6

89.8

95.3

79.4

77.1

366

Talas

98.1

76.0

86.9

82.6

70.4

124

Chui

98.0

63.3

85.5

82.1

59.3

260

Bishkek City

99.6

46.2

91.5

84.1

44.8

197

Osh City

99.5

81.8

82.6

79.2

70.4

76

Area

           

Urban

98.8

65.8

89.7

81.3

59.6

539

Rural

98.1

77.0

88.7

76.8

66.7

1137

Age

           

15-24

99.3

76.6

86.1

73.8

64.3

590

15-19

97.5

67.1

78.6

60.1

52.2

75

20-24

99.5

77.9

87.2

75.8

66.1

516

25-29

99.0

73.2

91.2

80.5

64.6

520

30-39

96.9

71.0

89.2

80.4

64.7

495

40-49

95.9

65.5

94.9

83.6

62.8

70

Marital status

           

Ever married/in union

98.4

73.4

89.0

78.2

64.4

1673

Never married/in union

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

2

Education

           

None/primary

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

15

Basic secondary

97.1

70.3

83.3

68.0

57.9

200

Complete secondary

98.9

74.1

88.3

74.7

62.8

757

Professional primary/middle

99.6

80.5

91.7

85.5

73.8

234

Higher

98.7

71.8

92.2

86.3

66.7

469

Wealth index quintiles

           

Poorest

96.8

69.4

85.1

64.8

55.3

336

Second

99.0

79.3

89.9

79.8

69.0

372

Middle

98.6

77.6

87.9

78.3

68.6

349

Fourth  

98.5

72.1

88.7

79.4

63.3

312

Richest

98.8

67.2

93.8

89.7

65.3

306

Mother tongue of household head

         

Kyrgyz

98.7

72.6

89.8

80.1

64.7

1283

Russian

(97.5)

(74.9)

(90.7)

(90.7)

(71.3)

63

Uzbek

98.7

81.3

88.5

71.1

65.9

256

Other language

91.4

58.2

75.7

59.0

48.5

73

1 MICS indicator 9.7 - HIV counselling during antenatal care

2 MICS indicator 9.8 - HIV testing during antenatal care

Among women who had given birth within the two years preceding the survey, the percentage who received counselling and HIV testing during antenatal care is presented in Table HA.5.

98.4 percent of women who had given birth within the two years preceding the survey received antenatal care, of these, 89.0 percent were tested for HIV, while 78.2 percent were told results and 73.4 percent received HIV counselling during pregnancy.  The percentage of those who received HIV counselling, were offered an HIV test, accepted and received the results was 64.4 percent.

78.2 percent of women who had given birth within the two years preceding the survey were offered an HIV test and were tested for HIV during antenatal care, and received the results. Across regions, the lowest figure was observed in the Batken oblast (50.1 precent) and the highest – in the Issyk-Kul oblast (85.7 percent).   Correspondingly, the lowest proportion of women who received HIV counseling and have been tested for HIV and told the result is found in the Batken oblast (40.5 percent), the highest is found in the Batken oblast (82.4 percent). 

HIV Indicators for Young Women  

In many countries, over half of new adult HIV infections are among young women age 15-24 years thus a change in behaviour among members of this age group is especially important to reduce new infections. The next tables present specific information on this age group.

 

Table HA.7 summarizes information on key HIV indicators for young women. Findings with respect to comprehensive knowledge, knowledge of mother to child transmission, and knowledge of a place to get tested are generally worse in this age group than the population age 15-49 years as a whole. Overall, just 19.8 percent of women age 15-24 years were found to have comprehensive knowledge and 61.8 percent of women this age knew where to be tested. Only 37.4 percent of women age 15-24 years have ever been tested and know the result of the most recent test, while only 20.2 percent have been tested for HIV in the last 12 months and know the result. Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV (with respect to the same four indicators that were previously discussed) were demonstrated in 2.4 percent of cases.

The highest percentage of women age 15-24 years having comprehensive knowledge on HIV was found in Osh oblast (36.1), and the lowest in Djalal-Abad (just 8 percent). Knowledge of the means of mother-to-child transmission of HIV was most prevalent in the Osh oblast (82.7), while women in the Chui oblast are the least informed on this (28.9 percent). Knowledge of a place to get tested for HIV was highest among young women in the Talas oblast (77.8 percent). The highest proportion of women age 15-24 who have ever been tested for HIV and have been told the result of their most recent test was is found in the Talas oblast (53.1 percent), while the lowest is found in the Issyk-Kul oblast (22.0 percent). 


Table HA.7: Key HIV and AIDS indicators (young women)

Percentage of women age 15-24 years by key HIV and AIDS indicators, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage of women age 15-24 years who:

Number of women age 15-24 years

Percentage who express accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV on all four indicatorsb

Number of women age 15-24 years who have heard of AIDS

Have comprehensive knowledge1,a

Know all three means of HIV transmission from mother to child

Know a place to get tested for HIV

Have ever been tested and know the result of the most recent test

Have been tested for HIV in the last 12 months and know the result

                 

Total

19.8

58.2

61.8

37.4

20.2

2383

2.4

2189

                 

Region

               

Batken

14.6

45.2

62.0

31.2

19.2

179

5.0

173

Djalal-Abad

8.0

59.1

66.3

41.8

25.4

503

3.7

417

Issyk-Kul

32.4

59.7

52.8

22.0

12.7

136

8.4

136

Naryn

30.0

78.3

69.9

40.6

22.6

83

7.2

82

Osh Oblast

36.1

82.7

66.2

37.6

19.9

510

0.0

482

Talas

22.9

63.9

77.8

53.1

30.5

102

0.3

98

Chui

10.1

28.9

58.0

33.9

18.3

379

0.4

347

Bishkek City

20.6

51.0

53.4

38.3

15.3

362

0.7

340

Osh City

11.6

62.3

53.0

38.2

20.1

129

5.6

115

Area

               

Urban

17.9

55.2

59.3

38.3

18.5

810

3.1

759

Rural

20.7

59.7

63.1

37.0

21.1

1573

2.0

1431

Age

               

15-19

17.0

50.2

42.9

15.5

10.5

1169

2.5

1025

15-17

14.7

44.6

30.8

4.9

3.5

694

2.6

581

18-19

20.2

58.4

60.7

30.9

20.8

474

2.4

443

20-24

22.4

65.8

80.0

58.6

29.5

1214

2.3

1165

       20-22

                 23.9

66.4

78.2

54.5

27.8

735

2.5

702

       23-24

                 20.3

64.8

82.7

64.8

32.2

479

1.9

462

Marital status

               

Ever married/in union

19.3

69.6

87.0

69.1

39.5

1018

2.2

967

Never married/in union

20.1

49.6

43.0

13.9

5.8

1365

2.5

1222

Education

               

None/primary

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

22

(*)

10

Basic secondary

11.8

49.1

45.6

20.6

10.1

569

1.9

470

Complete secondary

21.1

61.2

61.8

38.0

19.6

880

1.7

815

Professional primary/middle

23.3

64.8

72.8

47.8

29.4

366

4.2

360

Higher

24.3

60.5

72.3

48.3

26.5

545

2.7

534

Wealth index quintiles

               

Poorest

22.0

61.1

57.6

29.7

16.7

392

3.4

353

Second

17.1

62.4

61.6

39.8

24.1

472

2.7

416

Middle

21.7

62.8

63.3

37.3

20.6

490

1.2

457

Fourth  

19.9

56.6

59.6

35.8

19.3

527

1.5

492

Richest

18.4

49.0

66.0

43.1

19.8

503

3.4

471

Mother tongue of household head

               

Kyrgyz

20.7

60.0

61.6

37.1

19.5

1698

2.9

1587

Russian

22.9

48.4

69.9

41.9

25.2

161

2.6

160

Uzbek

17.1

60.9

64.3

40.4

22.2

405

0.6

356

Other language

11.6

34.1

45.7

26.0

16.5

117

0.0

85

1 MICS indicator 9.1; MDG indicator 6.3 - Knowledge about HIV prevention among young women

a Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention is the knowledge of all of the following: (1) that the chance of getting HIV can be reduced by having only one faithful uninfected partner and using a condom every time (two main ways of HIV prevention), (2) that a healthy looking person can be HIV-positive, and (3) that HIV cannot be transmitted by saliva by kissing with someone with HIV and by mosquito bites (the two most common misconceptions among women age 15-49 years in Kyrgyzstan according to this survey).

b Refer to Table HA.3 for the four indicators.