XI.       Child Protection

Birth Registration

A name and nationality is every child’s right, enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and other international treaties. Yet the births of around one in four children under the age of five worldwide have never been recorded.[1] This lack of formal recognition by the State usually means that a child is unable to obtain a birth certificate. As a result, he or she may be denied health care or education. Later in life, the lack of official identification documents can mean that a child may enter into marriage or the labour market, or be conscripted into the armed forces, before the legal age. In adulthood, birth certificates may be required to obtain social assistance or a job in the formal sector, to buy or prove the right to inherit property, to vote and to obtain a passport. Registering children at birth is the first step in securing their recognition before the law, safeguarding their rights, and ensuring that any violation of these rights does not go unnoticed.[2]

The births of 97.7 percent of children under five years in Kyrgyzstan have been registered (Table CP.1). There are no notable differentials by background characteristics.  The lack of adequate knowledge of how to register a child can present another major obstacle to the fulfilment of a child’s right to identity. However, data show that 75.7 percent of mothers of unregistered children appear to be aware of the registration process, which points to other barriers to birth registration.

Table CP.1: Birth registration

 

Percentage of children under age 5 by whether birth is registered and percentage of children not registered whose mothers (or caretakers) know how to register birth, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 
 

Children under age 5 whose birth is registered with civil authorities

Number of children  under age 5

Children under age 5 whose birth is not registered

 

Has birth certificate

No birth certificate

Total registered1

Percent of children whose mother (or caretaker) knows how to register birth

Number of children  under age 5 without birth registration

 

Seen

Not seen

 
 
                 

Total

67.5

28.0

2.2

97.7

4577

75.7

104

 
                 

Sex

               

Male

67.2

27.4

3.0

97.6

2342

79.8

56

 

Female

67.9

28.6

1.4

97.9

2235

(70.9)

48

 

Region

               

Batken

72.1

25.8

1.5

99.4

408

(*)

2

 

Djalal-Abad

78.9

16.0

3.7

98.7

956

(*)

12

 

Issyk-Kul

66.7

28.1

2.2

97.1

264

(*)

8

 

Naryn

60.4

37.1

2.0

99.6

195

(*)

1

 

Osh Oblast

54.6

40.6

0.7

95.9

1015

(*)

41

 

Talas

67.5

28.7

0.7

97.0

352

(100.0)

11

 

Chui

70.2

25.1

2.2

97.4

715

(*)

18

 

Bishkek City

67.9

28.2

2.2

98.4

474

(*)

8

 

Osh City

66.7

25.3

6.7

98.8

198

(*)

2

 

Area

               

Urban

67.6

28.4

2.5

98.5

1360

(*)

20

 

Rural

67.5

27.8

2.1

97.4

3217

77.8

84

 

Age

               

0-11 months

66.8

23.7

5.0

95.4

988

(92.7)

45

 

    0-5

65.8

21.1

6.9

93.7

455

(92.9)

29

 

    6-11

67.6

25.8

3.4

96.9

534

(*)

17

 

12-23 months

66.3

30.3

1.4

98.0

880

(*)

17

 

24-35 months

69.9

26.9

2.0

98.8

939

(*)

11

 

36-47 months

66.2

30.1

1.3

97.6

925

(*)

23

 

48-59 months

68.6

29.6

1.0

99.1

845

(*)

7

 

Mother’s education

               

None/primary

(20.3)

(44.5)

(3.8)

(68.6)

58

(*)

18

 

Basic secondary

66.5

28.2

1.8

96.4

529

(*)

19

 

Complete secondary

67.3

28.2

2.4

97.8

2102

(70.2)

45

 

Professional primary/middle

67.7

28.9

2.5

99.1

732

(*)

7

 

Higher

70.8

26.1

1.8

98.7

1155

(*)

15

 

Wealth index quintile

               

Poorest

66.9

25.8

3.0

95.8

986

(75.0)

42

 

Second

65.8

30.8

1.3

97.8

1039

(*)

22

 

Middle

68.9

26.7

2.7

98.3

951

(*)

16

 

Fourth

68.1

28.4

1.5

98.0

823

(*)

16

 

Richest

68.4

28.1

2.6

99.1

778

(*)

7

 

Mother tongue of household head

             

Kyrgyz

67.7

28.1

1.9

97.8

3534

79.0

77

 

Russian

76.0

22.4

1.1

99.5

180

(*)

1

 

Uzbek

69.8

25.0

4.2

99.0

656

(*)

7

 

Other language

49.2

40.0

1.4

90.7

205

(*)

19

 

1 MICS indicator 8.1 - Birth registration

 

 

Child Labour

Children around the world are routinely engaged in paid and unpaid forms of work that are not harmful to them. However, they are classified as child labourers when they are either too young to work or are involved in hazardous activities that may compromise their physical, mental, social or educational development. Article 32 (1) of the Convention on the Rights of the Child states: "States Parties recognize the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development".

The Kyrgyz Republic ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, ILO Convention N138 concerning minimum age for admission to employment and ILO Convention N182 on the worst forms of child labour. Respective legislation establishes 16-years as the minimum age of admission of the child to work, stipulates shorter working hours for young workers and prohibits the use of child labour in harmful or dangerous conditions.

The child labour module was administered for children age 5-17 and includes questions on the type of work a child does and the number of hours he or she is engaged in it. Data are collected on both economic activities (paid or unpaid work for someone who is not a member of the household, work for a family farm or business) and domestic work (household chores such as cooking, cleaning or caring for children, as well as collecting firewood or fetching water). The module also collected information on hazardous working conditions.[3], [4]

Table CP.2 presents children’s involvement in economic activities. The methodology of the MICS Indicator on Child Labour is based on three age-specific thresholds for the number of hours a child can perform economic activity without it being classified as in child labour. A child that performed economic activities during the last week for more than the age-specific number of hours is classified as in child labour:

  1. age 5-11: 1 hour or more
  2. age 12-14: 14 hours or more
  3. age 15-17: 43 hours or more

Involvement in economic activities changes with age. Among children age 5-11 years 24.0 percent are involved in an economic activity for at least one hour. Among children age 12-14 years, 47.5 percent are involved in an economic activity for less than 14 hours, while 4.6 percent are involved for 14 hours or more.  64.4 percent of children age 15-17 years are involved in an economic activity for less than 43 hours while 0.1 percent of children involved in economic activity for 43 hours or more.

Children age 15-17 years are more likely to be involved in economic activity in Osh (80.7 percent) and Batken (80.1 percent) oblasts, and less likely in the cities of Bishkek and Osh (29.6 and 19.7 percent, respectively).  Children from the richest households are less likely to be involved in economic activity than other children are.   

Table CP.2: Children's involvement in economic activities

Percentage of children by involvement in economic activities during the last week, according to age groups, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage of children age 5-11 years involved in economic activity for at least one hour

Number of children age 5-11 years

Percentage of children age 12-14 years involved in:

Number of children age 12-14 years

Percentage of children age 15-17 years involved in:

Number of children age 15-17 years

 

Economic activity less than 14 hours

Economic activity for 14 hours or more

Economic activity less than 43 hours

Economic activity for 43 hours or more

 
                 

Total

24.0

4692

47.5

4.6

1607

64.4

0.1

1555

                 

Sex

               

Male

26.0

2418

55.4

7.1

780

71.6

0.3

815

Female

21.8

2274

40.0

2.3

827

56.5

0.0

740

Region

               

Batken

36.0

387

50.3

8.3

164

79.5

0.6

130

Djalal-Abad

13.5

988

38.1

0.9

348

57.6

0.0

360

Issyk-Kul

24.7

371

64.1

1.9

136

76.5

0.0

114

Naryn

22.2

250

52.0

9.0

111

66.6

0.0

97

Osh Oblast

27.9

1034

51.5

6.0

393

80.4

0.3

302

Talas

23.7

301

63.4

0.0

55

73.0

0.6

71

Chui

39.6

775

69.4

7.5

188

71.7

0.0

258

Bishkek City

6.5

430

18.8

1.8

147

29.6

0.0

151

Osh City

7.5

157

12.5

7.0

66

19.7

0.0

72

Area

               

Urban

11.9

1277

26.4

1.8

427

36.5

0.3

457

Rural

28.5

3415

55.1

5.7

1181

76.0

0.1

1099

School attendance

               

Yes

27.2

3786

47.8

4.5

1596

64.8

0.0

1430

No

10.4

907

(*)

(*)

11

59.7

1.5

125

Mother’s education

               

None/primary

35.4

80

(51.4)

(0.0)

18

(62.6)

(0.0)

14

Basic secondary

24.4

487

50.9

3.5

181

57.8

0.1

409

Complete secondary

26.3

2238

48.6

3.0

836

69.9

0.1

636

Professional primary/middle

25.5

855

47.1

10.2

324

68.5

0.0

252

Higher

16.4

1029

40.4

4.1

245

52.9

0.7

139

Cannot be determineda

na

na

na

na

na

62.5

0.0

105

Wealth index quintile

               

Poorest

27.2

1104

55.3

4.9

391

74.1

0.2

348

Second

20.6

983

51.0

5.5

393

80.7

0.3

299

Middle

29.9

948

45.9

7.3

321

71.2

0.0

323

Fourth

29.3

875

54.6

3.9

268

65.4

0.1

314

Richest

10.7

782

22.7

0.0

236

24.8

0.0

271

Mother tongue of household head

             

Kyrgyz

23.6

3561

49.3

4.3

1152

66.4

0.0

1156

Russian

32.9

244

55.5

0.0

73

47.7

0.5

89

Uzbek

22.2

711

41.6

5.3

325

59.1

0.8

221

Other language

27.3

173

33.7

12.7

58

67.9

0.0

89

a Children age 15 or higher at the time of the interview whose mothers were not living in the household

Table CP.3 presents children’s involvement in household chores. As for economic activity above, the methodology also uses age-specific thresholds for the number of hours a child can perform household chores without it being classified as child labour. A child that performed household chores during the last week for more than the age-specific number of hours is classified as in child labour:

  1. age 5-11 and age 12-14: 28 hours or more
  2. age 15-17: 43 hours or more

The percentage of children involved in household chores for a number of hours that would define it as child labour in all age groups is very low. 

Among children age 5-11 years, 63.3 percent are involved in household chores for less than 28 hours. For children age 12-14 years that percentage is much higher and reaches 89.2 percent while 93.7 percent of children age 15-17 years are involved in household chores for less than 43 hours.

Unlike involvement in economic activities, the involvement of girls in household chores is higher than for boys. Involvement of children age 5-11 years in household chores for less than 28 hours is more than two times higher among children attending school than among those not attending (71.0 percent compared to 31.0 percent).

Table CP.3: Children's involvement in household chores

Percentage of children by involvement in household chores during the last week, according to age groups, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage of children age 5-11 years involved in:

Number of children age 5-11 years

Percentage of children age 12-14 years involved in:

Number of children age 12-14 years

Percentage of children age 15-17 years involved in:

Number of children age 15-17 years

Household chores less than 28 hours

Household chores for 28 hours or more

Household chores less than 28 hours

Household chores for 28 hours or more

Household chores less than 43 hours

Household chores for 43 hours or more

                   

Total

63.3

0.7

4692

89.2

1.4

1607

93.7

0.2

1555

                   

Sex

                 

Male

56.3

0.6

2418

81.7

1.0

780

91.1

0.2

815

Female

70.7

0.8

2274

96.2

1.8

827

96.6

0.4

740

Region

                 

Batken

60.1

6.1

387

73.0

5.4

164

77.3

0.0

130

Djalal-Abad

62.2

0.0

988

89.5

2.0

348

95.9

0.0

360

Issyk-Kul

58.1

0.0

371

90.5

0.0

136

93.6

0.0

114

Naryn

59.5

0.0

250

96.6

0.0

111

94.0

0.0

97

Osh Oblast

60.3

0.0

1034

89.9

0.1

393

94.9

1.3

302

Talas

62.8

0.2

301

89.9

0.0

55

97.3

0.0

71

Chui

76.9

0.9

775

91.6

3.1

188

98.7

0.0

258

Bishkek City

61.7

0.0

430

98.2

0.0

147

92.0

0.0

151

Osh City

53.9

1.2

157

80.9

0.0

66

89.5

0.0

72

Area

                 

Urban

62.7

0.5

1277

89.3

1.0

427

91.1

0.6

457

Rural

63.5

0.8

3415

89.2

1.5

1181

94.8

0.1

1099

School attendance

                 

Yes

71.0

0.7

3786

89.3

1.3

1596

93.8

0.3

1430

No

31.0

0.6

907

(*)

(*)

11

92.2

0.0

125

Mother’s education

                 

None/primary

82.6

0.0

80

(100.0)

(0.0)

18

(91.9)

(0.0)

14

Basic secondary

61.5

1.1

487

87.8

3.3

181

96.6

0.0

409

Complete secondary

63.4

0.8

2238

86.9

1.8

836

93.4

0.4

636

Professional primary/middle

67.4

0.5

855

93.7

0.0

324

93.0

0.5

252

Higher

58.8

0.6

1029

91.1

0.5

245

92.1

0.0

139

Cannot be determineda

na

na

na

na

na

na

88.5

0.0

105

Wealth index quintile

                 

Poorest

64.6

1.9

1104

86.7

3.0

391

93.3

0.8

348

Second

63.6

0.6

983

93.7

0.0

393

95.1

0.0

299

Middle

60.7

0.2

948

85.0

2.8

321

92.7

0.4

323

Fourth

61.2

0.4

875

88.2

0.5

268

95.2

0.0

314

Richest

66.3

0.0

782

92.8

0.0

236

92.2

0.0

271

Mother tongue of household head

               

Kyrgyz

62.8

0.8

3561

89.8

1.8

1152

93.3

0.1

1156

Russian

72.7

0.0

244

90.2

0.0

73

96.1

0.0

89

Uzbek

60.1

0.3

711

86.2

0.4

325

92.5

1.2

221

Other language

72.2

1.1

173

91.7

0.0

58

99.1

0.0

89

a Children age 15 or higher at the time of the interview whose mothers were not living in the household

na: not applicable

Table CP.4 combines the children working and performing household chores at or above and below the age-specific thresholds as detailed in the previous tables, as well as those children reported working under hazardous conditions, into the total child labour indicator. 

Overall, one in four children (25.8 percent) age 5-17 were engaged in child labour, while 15.2 percent were working under hazardous conditions. Male children (29.9 percent) are more likely to be involved in child labour than female children (21.5 percent), with rural areas having 2.5 times higher child labour than urban areas (30.9 vs. 12.3 percent).  Across regions, the highest percentage of children involved in child labour was found in the Chui (46.2 percent) and Osh (34.7 percent) oblasts, the lowest – in Bishkek city (4.5 percent).  The percentage of child labour increases with the age of the children. Children attending school are more likely to be in child labour. 

Table CP.4: Child labour

Percentage of children age 5-17 years by involvement in economic activities or household chores during the last week, percentage working under hazardous conditions during the last week, and percentage engaged in child labour during the last week, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Children involved in economic activities for a total number of hours during last week:

Children involved in household chores for a total number of hours during last week:

Children working under hazardous conditions

Total child labour1

Number of children age 5-17 years

Below the  age specific threshold

At or above the age specific threshold

Below the age specific threshold

At or above the age specific threshold

               

Total

23.3

15.3

74.6

0.8

15.2

25.8

7855

               

Sex

             

Male

26.2

17.1

68.3

0.6

18.5

29.9

4013

Female

20.2

13.4

81.2

0.9

11.8

21.5

3842

Region

             

Batken

28.4

22.6

66.5

4.7

3.8

27.7

681

Djalal-Abad

20.7

8.1

74.9

0.4

17.2

21.4

1696

Issyk-Kul

29.2

15.2

71.7

0.0

0.3

15.5

621

Naryn

27.7

14.3

75.8

0.0

9.0

20.8

458

Osh Oblast

26.3

18.1

73.1

0.3

22.0

34.7

1729

Talas

20.3

16.8

72.0

0.1

9.6

22.3

427

Chui

27.0

26.3

83.8

1.1

31.8

42.6

1220

Bishkek City

11.3

4.2

75.4

0.0

0.7

4.5

728

Osh City

7.7

5.5

68.7

0.6

6.9

12.0

295

Area

             

Urban

13.9

7.4

74.0

0.6

5.6

12.3

2160

Rural

26.8

18.3

74.8

0.8

18.9

30.9

5695

Age

             

5-11

1.3

24.0

63.3

0.7

7.8

24.5

4692

12-14

47.5

4.6

89.2

1.4

22.6

25.0

1607

15-17

64.4

0.1

93.7

0.2

30.1

30.4

1555

School attendance

             

Yes

25.7

16.2

80.1

0.8

16.3

27.5

6812

No

7.2

9.4

38.7

0.7

7.9

14.4

1043

Mother’s education

             

None/primary

15.8

25.4

86.5

0.0

20.6

36.1

111

Basic secondary

30.5

11.7

79.2

1.0

16.4

23.7

1077

Complete secondary

23.7

16.6

73.8

0.9

15.7

27.4

3711

Professional primary/middle

23.9

17.6

77.9

0.4

18.6

28.3

1431

Higher

13.5

12.7

67.7

0.5

7.5

18.7

1413

Cannot be determineda

62.1

2.6

89.2

0.0

38.3

40.8

112

Wealth index quintile

             

Poorest

26.0

17.4

74.7

1.9

12.3

26.2

1843

Second

27.3

13.4

76.3

0.3

19.8

28.8

1675

Middle

25.2

19.3

72.1

0.8

20.4

32.9

1592

Fourth

24.6

18.3

73.5

0.4

15.2

27.1

1457

Richest

10.3

6.5

76.6

0.0

7.1

11.0

1288

Mother tongue of household head

           

Kyrgyz

23.7

15.2

74.1

0.9

14.2

25.0

5869

Russian

20.7

19.8

81.0

0.0

21.7

30.8

406

Uzbek

21.7

14.1

72.5

0.5

16.0

26.8

1256

Other language

25.0

17.0

83.2

0.6

23.0

31.0

320

1 MICS indicator 8.2 - Child labour

a Children age 15 or higher at the time of the interview whose mothers were not living in the household

Child Discipline

Teaching children self-control and acceptable behavior is an integral part of child discipline in all cultures. Positive parenting practices involve providing guidance on how to handle emotions or conflicts in manners that encourage judgment and responsibility and preserve children's self-esteem, physical and psychological integrity and dignity. Too often however, children are raised through the use of punitive methods that rely on the use of physical force or verbal intimidation to obtain desired behaviors. Studies[5] have found that exposing children to violent discipline have harmful consequences, which range from immediate impacts to long-term harm that children carry forward into adult life. Violence hampers children’s development, learning abilities and school performance; it inhibits positive relationships, provokes low self-esteem, emotional distress and depression; and, at times, it leads to risk taking and self-harm.

In the MICS, respondents to the household questionnaire were asked a series of questions on the methods adults in the household used to discipline a selected child during the past month.

Table CP.5: Child discipline

Percentage of children age 1-14 years by child disciplining methods experienced during the last one month, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage of children age 1-14 years who experienced:

Number of children age 1-14 years

Only non-violent discipline

Psychological  aggression

Physical punishment

Any violent discipline method1

Any

Severe

             

Total

38.1

46.1

40.8

2.8

57.1

9994

             

Sex

           

Male

35.7

49.2

43.7

3.3

59.9

4979

Female

40.4

43.1

37.8

2.3

54.4

5014

Region

           

Batken

48.5

32.4

36.6

3.3

49.4

881

Djalal-Abad

55.6

26.1

40.2

0.5

42.9

2145

Issyk-Kul

44.4

31.3

32.6

0.6

48.2

733

Naryn

31.7

37.1

50.3

5.9

58.0

525

Osh Oblast

38.3

55.7

32.2

4.0

57.8

2165

Talas

20.1

64.4

54.6

2.7

71.1

644

Chui

26.6

58.9

44.2

4.2

66.8

1549

Bishkek City

26.8

60.7

45.0

2.1

70.3

966

Osh City

16.3

57.5

55.9

2.6

71.1

385

Area

           

Urban

34.1

48.9

42.8

2.5

60.0

2798

Rural

39.6

45.0

39.9

2.9

56.0

7196

Age

           

1-2

39.1

32.5

35.2

0.4

45.5

1928

    1 year

41.5

27.3

31.9

0.1

39.5

979

    2 years

36.6

37.9

38.7

0.7

51.8

949

3-4

30.8

53.9

51.7

3.8

67.1

1766

5-9

36.4

50.6

44.9

3.2

61.9

3580

10-14

44.2

44.8

32.1

3.2

52.7

2720

Education of household head

         

None

24.2

67.1

39.6

0.0

71.1

182

Primary

39.2

52.8

31.1

3.1

57.9

389

Basic secondary

36.7

48.1

43.1

3.2

57.9

1221

 

Complete secondary

38.8

44.2

42.0

3.0

56.6

4497

 

Professional primary

35.4

45.4

42.3

2.2

58.0

726

Professional middle

36.0

50.1

40.1

2.7

57.7

1208

Higher

40.8

43.6

38.1

2.3

55.6

1771

Wealth index quintile

           

Poorest

39.4

40.8

43.3

2.8

55.1

2340

Second

38.2

47.3

39.6

2.4

58.1

2167

Middle

41.4

46.0

40.8

3.3

54.7

2051

Fourth

36.9

46.9

37.5

2.1

56.5

1801

Richest

33.0

51.3

42.1

3.3

62.5

1635

Mother tongue of household head

           

Kyrgyz

38.2

44.9

41.7

2.6

56.8

7622

Russian

28.1

58.5

32.8

1.9

64.8

462

Uzbek

41.5

45.0

36.7

3.7

54.6

1509

Other language

33.9

60.5

47.7

4.2

64.0

397

1 MICS indicator 8.3 - Violent discipline

In Kyrgyzstan, 57.1 percent of children age 1-14 years were subjected to at least one form of psychological or physical punishment by household members during the past month (Table CP.5 and Figure CP.2).

For the most part, households employ a combination of violent disciplinary practices, reflecting the motivation of adults to control children’s behaviour by any means possible. While 46.1 percent of children experienced psychological aggression, about 40.8 experienced physical punishment. The most severe forms of physical punishment (hitting the child on the head, ears or face or hitting the child hard and repeatedly) are overall less common: 2.8 percent of children were subjected to severe punishment.

59.9 percent of male children and 54.4 percent of female children were subjected to physical discipline. Differentials with respect to many of the background variables were relatively small.  

Use of violent disciplinary practices does not depend greatly on the age of child; only children age 1-2 years are slightly less likely to be subjected to severe physical punishment. By regions, the highest use of any violent discipline method (about 70 percent) was observed in cities of Osh and Bishkek and the Talas oblast. 

Figure CP.2: Child disciplining methods, children age 1-14 years, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

 

While violent methods are extremely common forms of discipline, Table CP.6 reveals that only 15 percent of respondents believe that physical punishment is a necessary part of child-rearing. There are significant differentials across background variables of respondents. Overall, respondents with low educational attainment and those residing in rural areas are more likely to find physical punishment an acceptable method of disciplining children.   

The percentage of mothers (or caretakers) who believe that children should be subjected to physical punishment is highest in the Osh oblast (41.6 percent), while the lowest figures were observed in the Talas (1.9 percent) and Djalal-Abad oblast (1 percent).   There is no clear association by the respondent’s relationship to the child: 16.2 percent of mothers believe in the necessity of physical punishment compared to 14.4 of fathers and 13.3 among other adult household members. Children from the poorest households are more likely to be physically punished (18.9 precent) than those living in the richest housholds (9.2 percent).

Table CP.6: Attitudes toward physical punishment

Percentage of respondents to the child discipline module who believe that physical punishment is needed to bring up, raise, or educate a child properly, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Respondent believes that a child needs to be physically punished

Number of respondents to the child discipline module

     

Total

15.1

4005

     

Sex

   

Male

14.6

664

Female

15.2

3341

Region

   

Batken

4.9

341

Djalal-Abad

1.0

826

Issyk-Kul

18.0

319

Naryn

27.1

209

Osh Oblast

41.6

750

Talas

1.9

231

Chui

13.4

683

Bishkek City

5.4

476

Osh City

18.2

169

Area

   

Urban

10.4

1296

Rural

17.3

2709

Age

   

<25

12.5

362

25-39

16.6

1835

40-59

14.5

1436

60+

12.3

372

Respondent's relationship to selected child

 

Mother

16.2

2334

Father

14.4

447

Other

13.3

1224

Respondent's education

   
 

None

(*)

25

 

Primary

(26.2)

35

 

Secondary

17.0

2240

Professional primary/middle

12.9

814

Higher

11.0

891

Wealth index quintile

   

Poorest

18.9

850

Second

17.6

803

Middle

16.0

778

Fourth

13.5

760

Richest

9.2

814

Mother tongue of household head

   

Kyrgyz

13.8

3024

Russian

17.6

245

Uzbek

17.7

577

Other language

26.1

158

       

Early Marriage and Polygyny

Marriage[6]before the age of 18 is a reality for many young girls. In many parts of the world parents encourage the marriage of their daughters while they are still children in hopes that the marriage will benefit them both financially and socially, while also relieving financial burdens on the family. In actual fact, child marriage is a violation of human rights, compromising the development of girls and often resulting in early pregnancy and social isolation, with little education and poor vocational training reinforcing the gendered nature of poverty. [7]The right to 'free and full' consent to a marriage is recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights - with the recognition that consent cannot be 'free and full' when one of the parties involved is not sufficiently mature to make an informed decision about a life partner.

Closely related to the issue of child marriage is the age at which girls become sexually active. Women who are married before the age of 18 tend to have more children than those who marry later in life. Young early-married women is under higher risk of family violence by her husband or other adult member of his family. In the case of divorce, without formal registration of marriage, they are at risk of not getting alimony to support children, and, as a rule, cannot contend for fair division of property.

The percentage of women married before ages 15 and 18 years are provided in Table CP.7. Among women age 15-49 years, just 0.4 percent were married before age 15.  Among women age 20-49 years, about one in eight (12.7 percent) women were married before age 18.  About one in seven (13.9 percent) young women age 15-19 years is currently married or in union. This proportion is 15.3 percent  in rural areas and 11.1 percent in urban. The percentage of women age 20-49 years married before age 18 is strongly related to level of education and, to a lesser extent, to the household wealth. 

The percentage of women in a polygynous union is also provided in Table CP.7. Among all women age 15-49 years who are in union, just one woman in a hundred (0.9 percent) is in a polygynous union.  


Table CP.7: Early marriage and polygyny

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who first married or entered a marital union before their 15th birthday, percentages of women age 20-49 years who first married or entered a marital union before their 15th and 18th birthdays, percentage of women age 15-19 years currently married or in union, and the percentage of women who are in a polygynous marriage or union, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Women age 15-49 years

Women age 20-49 years

Women age 15-19 years

Women age 15-49 years

Percentage married before age 151

Number of women age 15-49 years

Percentage married before age 15

Percentage married before age 182

Number of women age 20-49 years

Percentage currently  married/in union3

Number of women age 15-19 years

Percentage in polygynous marriage/ union4

Number of women age 15-49 years currently married/in union

                   

Total

0.4

6854

0.5

12.7

5685

13.9

1169

0.9

4750

                   

Region

                 

Batken

0.1

543

0.2

12.8

453

14.8

90

0.9

408

Djalal-Abad

0.7

1336

0.9

13.1

1079

17.6

258

1.1

959

Issyk-Kul

0.7

469

0.7

10.2

386

8.2

84

1.2

330

Naryn

0.2

282

0.2

19.1

232

12.4

50

0.0

210

Osh Oblast

0.6

1277

0.8

14.9

1043

16.7

234

1.1

949

Talas

0.4

333

0.4

17.8

286

16.8

47

0.2

265

Chui

0.3

1216

0.3

13.4

1037

13.3

178

0.2

827

Bishkek City

0.2

1072

0.2

7.4

907

6.0

166

1.6

585

Osh City

0.7

326

0.8

9.7

263

16.2

63

1.2

217

Area

                 

Urban

0.3

2424

0.3

9.2

2037

11.1

387

1.6

1511

Rural

0.6

4430

0.7

14.6

3648

15.3

782

0.5

3239

Age

                 

15-19

0.1

1169

na

na

na

13.9

1169

0.0

153

20-24

0.9

1214

0.9

11.6

1214

na

na

0.3

809

25-29

0.8

1145

0.8

9.3

1145

na

na

0.4

981

30-34

0.3

935

0.3

13.8

935

na

na

1.6

823

35-39

0.4

854

0.4

18.7

854

na

na

1.3

734

40-44

0.5

804

0.5

13.4

804

na

na

1.0

645

45-49

0.1

733

0.1

10.6

733

na

na

1.1

605

Education

                 

None/primary

(9.8)

(58.0)

(10.3)

(33.4)

55

(*)

3

(8.1)

47

Basic secondary

1.0

941

1.9

21.5

524

11.4

416

0.3

467

Complete secondary

0.4

2813

0.4

18.6

2367

16.7

446

0.5

2163

Professional primary/middle

0.2

1258

0.2

7.6

1088

15.5

169

1.4

876

Higher

0.1

1784

0.1

4.0

1651

9.2

133

1.1

1197

Wealth index quintile

                 

Poorest

0.7

1245

0.9

15.9

1045

12.9

200

0.7

938

Second

0.4

1292

0.5

15.6

1068

14.4

224

0.7

966

Middle

0.6

1320

0.7

12.9

1092

17.5

227

0.6

937

Fourth

0.3

1424

0.3

11.0

1133

16.4

291

0.7

975

Richest

0.3

1574

0.3

9.2

1347

7.4

226

1.7

933

Mother tongue of household head

               

Kyrgyz

0.2

4891

0.3

12.6

4055

11.3

836

0.7

3379

Russian

0.6

582

0.7

8.1

510

(10.6)

72

2.3

345

Uzbek

0.5

1074

0.6

11.9

862

23.4

212

0.6

811

Other language

3.5

305

4.2

25.9

256

(21.2)

49

2.1

212

1 MICS indicator 8.4 - Marriage before age 15

2 MICS indicator 8.5 - Marriage before age 18

3 MICS indicator 8.6 - Young women age 15-19 years currently married or in union

4 MICS indicator 8.7 - Polygyny

Table CP.8: Trends in early marriage

Percentage of women who were first married or entered into a marital union before age 15 and 18, by area and age groups, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Urban

Rural

All

Percentage of women married before age 15

Number of women age 15-49 years

Percentage of women married before age 18

Number of women age 20-49 years

Percentage of women married before age 15

Number of women age 15-49 years

Percentage of women married before age 18

Number of women age 20-49 years

Percentage of women married before age 15

Number of women age 15-49 years

Percentage of women married before age 18

Number of women age 20-49 years

                         

Total

0.3

2424

9.2

2037

0.6

4430

14.6

3648

0.4

6854

12.7

5685

                         

Age

                       

15-19

0.0

387

na

na

0.1

782

na

na

0.1

1169

na

na

20-24

0.7

423

8.3

423

1.0

791

13.3

791

0.9

1214

11.6

1214

25-29

0.0

419

6.0

419

1.2

727

11.3

727

0.8

1145

9.3

1145

30-34

0.2

337

7.9

337

0.4

598

17.0

598

0.3

935

13.8

935

35-39

0.0

303

15.1

303

0.6

551

20.7

551

0.4

854

18.7

854

40-44

0.7

297

9.5

297

0.4

507

15.7

507

0.5

804

13.4

804

45-49

0.2

259

10.5

259

0.0

474

10.7

474

0.1

733

10.6

733

na: not applicable


Table CP.8 present respectively the proportion of women who were first married or entered into a marital union before age 15 and 18 by area and age groups. Examining the percentages married before age 15 and 18 by different age groups allow for trends to be observed in early marriage over time. Data show that the prevalence of the proportion of women married by age 18 increased slightly in 1990-s, reached its maximum at the turn of the century, and then gradually declined  as visualized by Figure CP.3.  

igure CP.3: Early marriage among women, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Another component is the spousal age difference with the indicator being the percentage of married/in union women 10 or more years younger than their current spouse. Table CP.9 presents the findings on the age difference between husbands and wives. About 5.9 percent of women age 20-24 are currently married to a man who is older by ten years or more, and about 6.9 percent of women age 15-19 are currently married to a man who is older by ten years or more. 


Table CP.9: Spousal age difference

Percent distribution of women currently married/in union age 15-19 and 20-24 years according to the age difference with their husband or partner, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage of currently married/in union women age 15-19 years whose husband or partner is:

Number of women age 15-19 years currently married/ in union

Percentage of currently married/in union women age 20-24 years whose husband or partner is:

Number of women age 20-24 years currently married/ in union

Younger

0-4 years older

5-9 years older

10+ years older1

Husband/ Partner's age unknown

Total

Younger

0-4 years older

5-9 years older

10+ years older2

Husband/Partner's age unknown

Total

                             

Total

0.2

48.6

43.4

6.9

0.9

100.0

153

4.4

57.2

32.2

5.9

0.3

100.0

809

                             

Region

                           

Batken

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

13

2.1

47.2

46.6

4.2

0.0

100.0

72

Djalal-Abad

(0.0)

(38.3)

(51.8)

(6.7)

(3.2)

100.0

41

4.6

52.2

33.2

9.4

0.6

100.0

185

Issyk-Kul

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

7

(6.4)

(55.4)

(29.2)

(9.0)

(0.0)

100.0

34

Naryn

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

6

4.2

54.9

30.5

10.4

0.0

100.0

27

Osh Oblast

(0.0)

(67.3)

(29.8)

(3.0)

(0.0)

100.0

39

3.1

61.1

31.0

4.9

0.0

100.0

202

Talas

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

8

4.8

54.1

35.5

5.6

0.0

100.0

48

Chui

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

20

5.6

62.0

29.6

2.7

0.0

100.0

125

Bishkek City

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

9

(8.0)

(61.8)

(24.4)

(5.7)

(0.0)

100.0

74

Osh City

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

10

2.1

61.8

30.0

2.2

3.9

100.0

43

Area

                           

Urban

0.0

36.5

53.7

9.8

0.0

100.0

39

5.9

56.2

28.9

7.8

1.2

100.0

227

Rural

0.3

52.8

39.8

5.9

1.2

100.0

113

3.8

57.6

33.5

5.1

0.0

100.0

581

Age

                           

15-19

0.2

48.6

43.4

6.9

0.9

100.0

153

na

na

na

na

na

100.0

na

20-24

na

na

na

na

na

100.0

na

4.4

57.2

32.2

5.9

0.3

100.0

809

Education

                           

None/primary

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

2

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

16

Basic secondary

(0.0)

(46.9)

(38.6)

(11.7)

(2.8)

100.0

47

3.1

56.8

30.5

8.7

0.9

100.0

118

Complete secondary

(0.5)

(45.1)

(49.4)

(5.0)

(0.0)

100.0

69

3.5

54.8

34.3

7.5

0.0

100.0

365

Professional primary/middle

(0.0)

(58.2)

(35.9)

(6.0)

(0.0)

100.0

26

4.4

63.5

26.2

4.8

1.0

100.0

114

Higher

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

9

7.3

58.0

32.1

2.3

0.3

100.0

196

Wealth index quintile

                           

Poorest

(1.4)

(54.8)

(32.5)

(11.2)

(0.0)

100.0

26

1.5

52.8

40.3

5.3

0.0

100.0

148

Second

(0.0)

(45.7)

(54.3)

(0.0)

(0.0)

100.0

29

2.8

56.8

33.2

6.7

0.6

100.0

198

Middle

(0.0)

(48.9)

(41.1)

(6.7)

(3.3)

100.0

40

7.3

51.9

30.9

9.2

0.7

100.0

176

Fourth

(0.0)

(43.8)

(48.1)

(8.2)

(0.0)

100.0

44

2.5

63.7

31.2

2.5

0.0

100.0

150

Richest

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

14

8.3

62.4

24.5

4.5

0.4

100.0

136

Mother tongue of household head

                         

Kyrgyz

0.4

43.8

46.1

9.7

0.0

100.0

90

4.2

57.3

30.7

7.5

0.3

100.0

560

Russian

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

4

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

42

Uzbek

0.0

55.5

40.9

0.9

2.7

100.0

48

5.4

55.0

35.7

3.1

0.7

100.0

161

Other language

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

10

(4.6)

(72.6)

(22.8)

(0.0)

(0.0)

100.0

44

1 MICS indicator 8.8a - Spousal age difference (among women age 15-19)

2 MICS indicator 8.8b - Spousal age difference (among women age 20-24)

Table CP.13: Attitudes toward domestic violence

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife in various circumstances, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife:

Number of women age 15-49 years

If she goes out without telling him

If she neglects the children

If she argues with him

If she refuses sex with him

If she burns the food

For any of these five reasons1

If she neglects the housework

For any of these six reasons

                   

Total

17.8

23.6

15.7

6.6

6.2

32.8

14.8

34.2

6854

                   

Region

                 

Batken

31.3

27.4

25.7

9.9

8.8

50.7

22.8

55.1

543

Djalal-Abad

14.2

7.7

8.2

0.3

1.6

15.5

2.9

15.6

1336

Issyk-Kul

14.7

32.2

12.9

10.9

8.5

37.5

33.8

45.1

469

Naryn

12.2

27.3

15.7

11.0

7.0

34.8

13.2

35.1

282

Osh Oblast

28.2

38.6

25.6

8.9

6.6

48.1

20.4

48.6

1277

Talas

16.8

26.0

11.4

5.1

13.5

36.5

26.1

40.7

333

Chui

14.4

24.0

19.0

7.7

7.7

33.3

13.2

33.4

1216

Bishkek City

7.5

14.5

5.2

4.3

2.4

18.2

5.4

18.7

1072

Osh City

27.0

34.8

21.0

12.2

14.4

47.1

27.5

49.1

326

Area

                 

Urban

13.5

20.6

10.8

6.2

4.9

27.1

11.8

28.6

2424

Rural

20.2

25.2

18.3

6.8

6.9

35.9

16.4

37.2

4430

Age

                 

15-19

10.3

14.5

10.3

2.7

3.0

21.5

8.8

22.4

1169

20-24

19.0

23.4

16.2

7.4

6.5

34.0

15.2

35.4

1214

25-29

20.0

27.3

16.7

7.7

5.9

36.7

14.7

38.2

1145

30-34

21.3

27.8

17.3

7.4

7.4

37.9

17.1

39.4

935

35-39

20.4

26.6

16.5

7.1

7.0

34.6

16.1

36.6

854

40-44

17.0

24.7

16.6

6.9

7.2

34.2

17.7

35.7

804

45-49

18.1

22.8

17.5

7.5

7.4

32.2

16.2

33.4

733

Marital/Union status

                 

Currently married/in union

21.6

28.0

18.5

8.1

7.7

38.0

17.3

39.6

4750

Formerly married/in union

14.7

17.6

11.9

6.0

5.9

26.8

13.7

28.0

606

Never married/in union

7.3

12.1

8.2

2.1

1.5

18.5

7.2

19.5

1498

Education

                 

None/primary

(40.3)

(54.0)

(39.3)

(43.9)

(8.3)

(62.9)

(24.9)

(62.9)

58

Basic secondary

23.6

27.8

18.1

6.8

6.4

34.9

16.7

35.7

941

Complete secondary

22.0

26.9

18.3

7.9

7.9

38.0

17.4

39.7

2813

Professional primary/middle

14.1

21.2

13.9

5.6

5.4

29.5

14.1

31.2

1258

Higher

10.2

16.9

10.7

3.8

3.8

24.8

9.7

25.8

1784

Wealth index quintile

                 

Poorest

24.0

27.9

20.7

8.5

8.0

40.5

20.8

42.7

1245

Second

23.1

28.8

20.5

8.6

7.7

39.2

17.5

40.4

1292

Middle

22.3

27.4

16.8

7.2

8.1

36.5

17.4

37.9

1320

Fourth

14.1

21.8

13.7

5.5

5.2

30.3

12.4

31.6

1424

Richest

8.3

14.4

8.5

3.8

2.8

20.5

7.9

21.4

1574

Mother tongue of household head

               

Kyrgyz

16.1

22.8

14.7

5.9

6.2

32.2

15.0

33.9

4891

Russian

1.3

7.8

4.4

2.0

1.1

11.1

4.3

11.3

582

Uzbek

33.0

32.5

24.5

9.1

8.6

44.2

18.8

45.1

1074

Other language

23.4

34.7

22.1

16.1

7.9

42.5

16.7

43.1

305

1 MICS indicator 8.12 - Attitudes towards domestic violence


Attitudes toward Domestic Violence

MICS assessed the attitudes of women age 15-49 years towards wife beating by asking the respondents whether they think that husbands are justified to hit or beat their wives in a variety of situations. The purpose of these questions are to capture the social justification of violence (in contexts where women have a lower status in society) as a disciplinary action when a woman does not comply with certain expected gender roles.

The responses to these questions can be found in Table CP.13. Overall, 32.8 percent of women in Kyrgyzstan feel that a husband/partner is justified in hitting or beating his wife in at least one of the five situations. Women who justify a husband’s violence, in most cases agree and justify violence in instances when a wife neglects the children (23.6 percent), or if she demonstrates her autonomy, exemplified by going out without telling her husband (17.8 percent) or arguing with him (15.7 percent). Around 6.6 percent of women believe that wife-beating is justified if the wife refuses to have sex with the husband or if she burns the food (6.2 percent). Justification in any of the five situations is more present among those living in poorest households and currently married women. The percentage of women age 15-49 years who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife is the highest in Batken (50.7 percent) and Osh (48.1 percent) oblasts and Osh city (47.1 percent), the lowest – in Bishkek city and Djalal-abad oblast (18.2 and 15.5 percent, respectively).

The 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS included a survey-specific question on whether women feel that a husband/partner is justified in hitting or beating his wife if she neglects the housework. Percentage of women age 15-49 years who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife if she neglects the household and hygiene work is 14.8. However, the percentage of women who justify a husband’s violence in at least one of the six situations (34.2 percent) does not differ greatly from those who justify a husband’s violence in at least one of the five situations described above.

Children’s Living Arrangements

The CRC recognizes that “the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding”. Millions of children around the world grow up without the care of their parents for several reasons, including due to the premature death of the parents or their migration for work. In most cases, these children are cared for by members of their extended families, while in others, children may be living in households other than their own, as live-in domestic workers for instance. Understanding the children’s living arrangements, including the composition of the households where they live and the relationships with their primary caregivers, is key to design targeted interventions aimed at promoting child’s care and wellbeing.

Table CP.14 presents information on the living arrangements and orphanhood status of children under age 18.  Overall, 77.1 percent of children age 0-17 years in Kyrgyzstan live with both their parents, 10.7 percent live with mothers only and 1.8 percent live with fathers only. One in ten children (9.9 percent) live with neither of their biological parents while, most often, both of them are alive (9 percent). The percentage of all children age 0-17 years who have lost one or both parents  is 3.4 percent. As expected, older children are less likely than younger children to live with both parents and slightly more likely than younger children to have lost one or both parents. There are no notable differences between urban and rural areas or among the regions in terms of orphanhood.

 



Table CP.14: Children's living arrangements and orphanhood

Percent distribution of children age 0-17 years according to living arrangements, percentage of children age 0-17 years not living with a biological parent and percentage of children who have one or both parents dead, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Living with both parents

Living with neither biological parent

Living with mother only

Living with father only

Missing information on father/ mother

Total

Living with neither biological parent1

One or both parents dead 2

Number of children age 0-17 years

Only father alive

Only mother alive

Both alive

Both dead

Father alive

Father dead

Mother alive

Mother dead

                             

Total

77.1

0.2

0.5

9.0

0.2

8.5

2.2

1.5

0.3

0.5

100.0

9.9

3.4

11659

                             

Sex

                           

Male

77.0

0.2

0.5

9.0

0.2

8.2

2.4

1.7

0.3

0.5

100.0

9.9

3.6

5998

Female

77.3

0.1

0.5

9.0

0.3

8.7

2.1

1.3

0.3

0.5

100.0

9.9

3.2

5660

Region

                           

Batken

73.2

0.0

1.1

10.7

0.3

9.5

1.8

2.2

0.7

0.5

100.0

12.1

3.9

1021

Djalal-Abad

73.6

0.2

0.2

11.7

0.1

9.8

2.1

1.4

0.4

0.3

100.0

12.3

3.1

2515

Issyk-Kul

81.2

0.0

0.5

7.9

0.5

3.5

3.9

1.9

0.1

0.7

100.0

8.8

4.9

837

Naryn

80.5

0.3

1.0

10.9

0.0

3.1

2.9

0.9

0.2

0.2

100.0

12.2

4.4

607

Osh Oblast

77.0

0.2

0.5

11.3

0.2

6.8

1.1

2.3

0.2

0.3

100.0

12.3

2.3

2494

Talas

85.8

0.2

0.1

6.1

0.0

3.3

3.1

0.6

0.3

0.7

100.0

6.3

3.7

733

Chui

76.7

0.0

0.7

6.7

0.4

10.6

2.8

1.1

0.2

0.8

100.0

7.8

4.1

1827

Bishkek City

78.1

0.2

0.4

3.1

0.1

14.1

2.3

1.1

0.4

0.3

100.0

3.7

3.3

1156

Osh City

79.4

0.1

0.4

6.0

0.0

10.4

2.3

0.5

0.2

0.8

100.0

6.4

3.2

469

Area

                           

Urban

75.5

0.2

0.4

6.3

0.2

12.7

2.7

1.2

0.3

0.6

100.0

7.0

3.8

3334

Rural

77.8

0.2

0.5

10.1

0.2

6.8

2.1

1.6

0.3

0.4

100.0

11.0

3.3

8325

Age

                           

0-4

80.8

0.1

0.2

7.5

0.0

9.5

0.5

0.8

0.1

0.4

100.0

7.8

0.9

4233

    0-2

83.1

0.0

0.1

5.6

0.0

9.9

0.4

0.5

0.1

0.3

100.0

5.7

0.6

2637

    3-4

77.1

0.1

0.4

10.8

0.1

8.7

0.6

1.4

0.2

0.7

100.0

11.4

1.4

1596

5-9

75.9

0.2

0.5

10.6

0.1

8.6

1.8

1.7

0.1

0.4

100.0

11.5

2.7

3288

10-14

74.8

0.2

0.9

9.8

0.4

6.8

4.1

2.0

0.6

0.4

100.0

11.3

6.2

2648

15-17

73.4

0.3

0.6

8.1

0.5

8.3

5.0

2.1

0.7

1.0

100.0

9.5

7.1

1490

Wealth index quintiles

                           

Poorest

77.7

0.1

0.6

9.1

0.4

7.2

2.3

2.0

0.3

0.2

100.0

10.3

3.8

2650

Second

78.1

0.4

0.4

9.9

0.0

6.8

1.9

1.9

0.2

0.4

100.0

10.7

2.9

2511

Middle

75.6

0.1

0.7

11.2

0.3

8.0

2.2

1.1

0.6

0.4

100.0

12.2

3.8

2401

Fourth  

80.2

0.0

0.5

8.1

0.1

6.4

2.2

1.6

0.2

0.6

100.0

8.7

3.0

2143

Richest

73.5

0.2

0.2

6.0

0.2

15.4

2.8

0.7

0.2

0.8

100.0

6.5

3.6

1953

Mother tongue of household head

                         

Kyrgyz

76.4

0.1

0.5

10.5

0.2

7.5

2.3

1.7

0.3

0.4

100.0

11.3

3.5

8867

Russian

71.1

0.0

0.0

4.5

1.4

16.4

4.1

0.9

0.0

1.6

100.0

5.9

5.6

547

Uzbek

82.9

0.3

0.4

4.3

0.0

9.0

1.6

0.9

0.2

0.4

100.0

4.9

2.4

1747

Other language

76.2

0.0

0.6

4.7

0.0

15.1

1.5

0.5

0.5

0.7

100.0

5.4

2.7

493

1 MICS indicator 8.13 - Children’s living arrangements

2 MICS indicator 8.14 - Prevalence of children with one or both parents dead


The 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS included a simple measure of one particular aspect of migration related to what is termed children left behind, i.e. for whom one or both parents have moved abroad. While the amount of literature on the subject is growing, the long-term effects of the benefits of remittances versus the potential adverse psycho-social effects are not yet conclusive, as there is somewhat conflicting evidence available as to the effects on children.

Besides presenting simple prevalence rates, the findings of the 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS presented in Table CP.15 will greatly help fill the data gap on the topic of migration. In Kyrgyzstan, one in nine children (11.2 percent) age 0-17 have one or both parents living abroad. Both the mother and father were abroad in almost half of these cases. As expected, the mother were less likely to be abroad than fathers; almost 5 times less, for children under five years.

There are notable regional differences, whereby children in the Djalal-abad, Osh and Batken oblasts are more likely to have one parent abroad (17.7, 16.0 and 15.2 percent, respectively) compared to those living in the Naryn oblast (1.3 percent) and Bishkek City (3.3 percent).

Table CP.15: Children with parents living abroad

Percent distribution of children age 0-17 years by residence of parents in another country, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percent distribution of children age 0-17 years:

Percentage of children age 0-17 years with at least one parent living abroad¹

Number of children age 0-17 years

With at least one parent living abroad

With neither parent living abroad

Total

Only mother abroad

Only father abroad

Both mother and father abroad

               

Total

2.0

4.2

5.0

88.8

100.0

11.2

11659

               

Sex

             

Male

1.9

4.0

5.1

89.0

100.0

11.0

5998

Female

2.0

4.4

4.9

88.6

100.0

11.4

5660

Region

             

Batken

3.3

6.1

5.8

84.8

100.0

15.2

1021

Djalal-Abad

2.5

7.0

8.2

82.3

100.0

17.7

2515

Issyk-Kul

0.9

0.2

2.8

96.0

100.0

4.0

837

Naryn

0.5

0.6

0.6

98.4

100.0

1.6

607

Osh Oblast

2.6

5.3

8.1

84.0

100.0

16.0

2494

Talas

1.2

1.3

3.2

94.4

100.0

5.6

733

Chui

2.0

3.5

2.0

92.5

100.0

7.5

1827

Bishkek City

0.7

1.4

1.2

96.7

100.0

3.3

1156

Osh City

0.5

5.9

3.5

90.1

100.0

9.9

469

Area

             

Urban

1.1

4.7

3.2

91.0

100.0

9.0

3334

Rural

2.3

4.0

5.8

87.9

100.0

12.1

8325

Age group

             

0-4

1.1

5.9

5.0

88.0

100.0

12.0

4233

    0-2

0.5

6.3

4.0

89.2

100.0

10.8

2637

    3-4

2.1

5.2

6.7

86.0

100.0

14.0

1596

5-9

2.3

4.1

5.9

87.7

100.0

12.3

3288

10-14

2.7

2.5

5.1

89.8

100.0

10.2

2648

15-17

2.3

2.8

2.9

92.0

100.0

8.0

1490

Wealth index quintile

           

Poorest

2.3

4.6

4.8

88.4

100.0

11.6

2650

Second

2.3

3.9

6.1

87.7

100.0

12.3

2511

Middle

2.0

4.8

6.9

86.4

100.0

13.6

2401

Fourth

2.3

2.6

3.2

91.9

100.0

8.1

2143

Richest

0.8

5.3

3.5

90.4

100.0

9.6

1953

Mother tongue of household head

           

Kyrgyz

2.2

3.8

6.1

87.9

100.0

12.1

8867

Russian

0.9

2.6

0.8

95.6

100.0

4.4

547

Uzbek

1.7

6.4

1.7

90.2

100.0

9.8

1747

Other language

0.0

6.0

1.8

92.2

100.0

7.8

493

1 MICS indicator 8.15 - Children with at least one parent living abroad