X.        Literacy and Education

Literacy among Young Women

Education is a key resource for human development, economy, welfare improvement and the most important factor in poverty reduction. Therefore, the level of education is often seen as a proxy measure of social progress and economic achievement. In MICS, since only a women’s questionnaire was administered, the findings are based only on females age 15-24. Literacy is assessed on the ability of the respondent to read a short simple statement or based on highest completed level of schooling.

The percent literate is presented in Table ED.1.Table ED.1 indicates that 99.3 percent of young women in Kyrgyzstan are literate and literacy does not vary across regions, reaching the lowest rate in the Osh oblast (97.3 percent). Of women who live in families where the mother tongue of the household head is Other, only 88.7 percent were actually able to read the statement shown to them. 

Table ED.1: Literacy Young Women

Percentage of women age 15-24 years who are literate, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage literate1

Percentage not known

Number of women age 15-24 years

       

Total

99.3

0.0

2383

       

Region

     

Batken

100.0

0.0

179

Djalal-Abad

99.5

0.2

503

Issyk-Kul

100.0

0.0

136

Naryn

100.0

0.0

83

Osh Oblast

97.3

0.0

510

Talas

100.0

0.0

102

Chui

100.0

0.0

379

Bishkek City

100.0

0.0

362

Osh City

100.0

0.0

129

Area

     

Urban

99.8

0.1

810

Rural

99.1

0.0

1573

Education

     

None/primary

(*)

(*)

22

Basic secondary

100.0

0.0

569

Complete secondary

100.0

0.0

880

Professional primary/middle

100.0

0.0

366

Higher

100.0

0.0

545

Age

     

15-19

99.8

0.1

1169

20-24

98.9

0.0

1214

Wealth index quintile

     

Poorest

97.6

0.0

392

Second

99.2

0.0

472

Middle

99.7

0.0

490

Fourth  

99.9

0.0

527

Richest

99.8

0.2

503

Mother tongue of household head

     

Kyrgyz

99.9

0.1

1698

Russian

100.0

0.0

161

Uzbek

99.5

0.0

405

Other language

88.7

0.0

117

1 MICS indicator 7.1; MDG indicator 2.3 - Literacy rate among young women

School Readiness

Attendance to pre-school education is important for the readiness of children to school. Table ED.2 shows the proportion of children in the first grade of primary school (regardless of age) who attended pre-school in the previous year[1].

Overall, 43.1 percent of children who are currently attending the first grade of primary school were attending pre-school the previous year. More than half of the children in first grade in urban areas (52.2 percent) had attended pre-school the previous year compared to 40.0 percent among children living in rural areas.

Table ED.2: School readiness

Percentage of children attending first grade of primary school who attended pre-school the previous year, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage of children attending first grade who attended preschool in previous year1

Number of children attending first grade of primary school

     

Total

43.1

662

     

Sex

   

Male

43.3

337

Female

43.0

325

Region

   

Batken

69.0

68

Djalal-Abad

38.7

134

Issyk-Kul

31.5

42

Naryn

39.2

42

Osh Oblast

39.4

147

Talas

30.0

53

Chui

37.6

107

Bishkek City

(68.0)

46

Osh City

(50.7)

24

Area

   

Urban

52.2

170

Rural

40.0

492

Mother's education

   

None/primary

(*)

7

Basic secondary

31.1

56

Complete secondary

40.4

351

Professional primary/middle

40.1

104

Higher

56.1

144

Wealth index quintile

   

Poorest

42.2

157

Second

33.0

150

Middle

41.1

150

Fourth  

45.7

109

Richest

60.3

98

Mother tongue of household head

 

Kyrgyz

43.2

503

Russian

(*)

29

Uzbek

37.5

104

Other language

(*)

26

1 MICS indicator 7.2 - School readiness

Regional differentials are also very significant; first graders in the Batken oblast and Bishkek city are more likely to attended pre-school (69 and 68 percent, respectively) than their counterparts in Talas and Issyk-Kul oblasts (30 and 31.5 percent, respectively). Socioeconomic status appears to have a positive correlation with school readiness – while the indicator does not exceed 42.2 percent in the poorest quintiles, it increases to 60.3 percent among those children living in the richest quintile.

Attendance to pre-school education positively correlates with education of mothers: for children whose mothers have higher education, 56.1 percent were attending the first grade, while this is only 31.1 percent among children whose mothers have basic secondary education.

Primary and Secondary School Participation

Universal access to basic education and the achievement of primary education by the world’s children is one of the Millennium Development Goals. Education is a vital prerequisite for combating poverty, empowering women, protecting children from hazardous and exploitative labour and sexual exploitation, promoting human rights and democracy, protecting the environment, and influencing population growth.

In Kyrgyzstan, according to the Law on Education, the school education consists of three levels. The first level, primary education, consists of grades 1-4. The second level, lower secondary education, consists of grades 5-9. The first two levels together constitute what is referred to as basic secondary education according to the law. The third level, upper secondary education, consists of graded 10-11. The two levels, lower and upper secondary education, together constitute secondary education. The three levels together (primary, lower and upper secondary) constitute what is referred to as complete secondary education according to the law. In this report, lower and upper secondary school are used when referring to levels of education (Tables ED.5, ED.5A, ED.5B, ED.8 and ED.9) while basic and complete secondary is used as a background characteristic to refer to the educational attainment of individuals.

Completion of basic secondary education is compulsory for all citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic; attendance is free of charge in public and municipal educational institutions. Children enter primary school at age 6 or 7. The school year typically runs from September of one year to June of the following year.

Of children who are of age 7 in Kyrgyzstan, 94.9 percent are attending the first grade of primary school (Table ED.3). There is not much variation in timeliness of children’s participation to primary school by gender, mother’s education or socioeconomic status. Some differentials were observed across regions. The highest percentage was observed in Naryn oblast (97.3 percent) while the figures in the Batken oblast (90.7 percent) and Bishkek city (91.8 percent) are slightly lower.

Table ED.3: Primary school entry

Percentage of children of primary school entry age entering grade 1 (net intake rate), Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage of children of primary school entry age entering grade 11

Number of children of primary school entry age

     

Total

94.9

636

     

Sex

   

Male

96.0

319

Female

93.7

318

Region

   

Batken

90.7

58

Djalal-Abad

96.6

139

Issyk-Kul

92.8

36

Naryn

97.3

37

Osh Oblast

96.4

137

Talas

94.3

38

Chui

95.5

103

Bishkek City

(91.8)

70

Osh City

(92.8)

18

Area

   

Urban

93.0

186

Rural

95.7

451

Mother's education

   

None/primary

(*)

9

Basic secondary

(100.0)

51

Complete secondary

94.6

312

Professional primary/middle

90.8

127

Higher

97.1

136

Wealth index quintile

   

Poorest

94.6

151

Second

96.9

129

Middle

90.6

134

Fourth  

96.6

119

Richest

96.4

103

Mother tongue of household head

 

Kyrgyz

95.1

486

Russian

(*)

30

Uzbek

94.7

97

Other language

(*)

23

1 MICS indicator 7.3 - Net intake rate in primary education

Table ED.4 provides the percentage of children of primary school age 7 to 10 years who are attending primary or secondary school[2] and those who are out of school. The vast majority of children of primary school age are attending school (99.3 percent). Therefore attendance does not vary much with regard to background characteristics. However, less than 1 percent (0.7 percent) of the children are out of school, primarily due to non-attendance of children age 7 (1.4 percent).   


Table ED.4: Primary school attendance and out of school children

Percentage of children of primary school age attending primary or secondary school (adjusted net attendance ratio), percentage attending preschool, and percentage out of school, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Male

Female

Total

Net attendance ratio (adjusted)

Percentage of children:

Number of children

Net attendance ratio (adjusted)

Percentage of children:

Number of children

Net attendance ratio (adjusted)1

Percentage of children:

Number of children

Not attending school or preschool

Attending preschool

Out of schoola

Not attending school or preschool

Attending preschool

Out of schoola

Not attending school or preschool

Attending preschool

Out of schoola

                               

Total

99.4

0.3

0.4

0.6

1159

99.2

0.7

0.1

0.8

1152

99.3

0.5

0.2

0.7

2311

                               

Region

                             

Batken

98.4

0.8

0.8

1.6

97

99.3

0.7

0.0

0.7

94

98.9

0.8

0.4

1.1

191

Djalal-Abad

100.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

253

100.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

240

100.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

494

Issyk-Kul

100.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

91

98.9

0.0

1.1

1.1

93

99.4

0.0

0.6

0.6

184

Naryn

98.6

1.4

0.0

1.4

70

100.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

63

99.3

0.7

0.0

0.7

133

Osh Oblast

100.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

246

98.5

1.5

0.0

1.5

240

99.2

0.8

0.0

0.8

486

Talas

99.0

1.0

0.0

1.0

64

99.2

0.8

0.0

0.8

69

99.1

0.9

0.0

0.9

133

Chui

100.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

152

100.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

220

100.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

372

Bishkek City

97.4

0.0

2.6

2.6

140

97.8

2.2

0.0

2.2

96

97.6

0.9

1.5

2.4

236

Osh City

98.7

1.3

0.0

1.3

45

98.4

1.6

0.0

1.6

37

98.5

1.5

0.0

1.5

81

Area

                             

Urban

98.6

0.4

1.0

1.4

346

98.9

0.9

0.2

1.1

314

98.7

0.6

0.6

1.3

660

Rural

99.7

0.2

0.1

0.3

813

99.4

0.6

0.1

0.6

838

99.5

0.4

0.1

0.5

1651

Age at beginning of school year

                             

7

98.4

0.2

1.4

1.6

319

98.8

0.9

0.3

1.2

318

98.6

0.5

0.8

1.4

636

8

99.8

0.2

0.0

0.2

302

98.5

1.5

0.0

1.5

281

99.2

0.8

0.0

0.8

583

9

99.5

0.5

0.0

0.5

276

99.8

0.2

0.0

0.2

292

99.6

0.4

0.0

0.4

567

10

99.8

0.2

0.0

0.2

263

100.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

261

99.9

0.1

0.0

0.1

525

Mother's education

                             

None/primary

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

14

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

13

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

27

Basic secondary

99.4

0.6

0.0

0.6

105

100.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

122

99.7

0.3

0.0

0.3

227

Complete secondary

99.6

0.3

0.1

0.4

544

99.2

0.7

0.1

0.8

582

99.4

0.5

0.1

0.6

1126

Professional primary/middle

98.9

0.3

0.8

1.1

252

99.8

0.0

0.2

0.2

232

99.3

0.2

0.5

0.7

484

Higher

99.3

0.0

0.7

0.7

242

100.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

202

99.6

0.0

0.4

0.4

444

Wealth index quintile

                             

Poorest

99.3

0.5

0.3

0.7

282

98.3

1.6

0.2

1.7

279

98.8

1.0

0.2

1.2

561

Second

100.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

238

100.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

227

100.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

465

Middle

98.8

0.3

0.8

1.2

233

98.9

1.1

0.0

1.1

246

98.9

0.7

0.4

1.1

479

Fourth  

99.5

0.5

0.0

0.5

199

99.5

0.3

0.3

0.5

226

99.5

0.4

0.1

0.5

424

Richest

99.2

0.0

0.8

0.8

208

100.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

174

99.6

0.0

0.4

0.4

382

Mother tongue of household head

                           

Kyrgyz

99.6

0.1

0.3

0.4

903

99.5

0.4

0.1

0.5

883

99.5

0.3

0.2

0.5

1785

Russian

(96.7)

(0.5)

(2.8)

(3.3)

59

(100.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

62

98.4

0.3

1.3

1.6

121

Uzbek

99.1

0.9

0.0

0.9

154

99.6

0.4

0.0

0.4

168

99.4

0.6

0.0

0.6

322

Other language

(100.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

44

(90.6)

(9.4)

(0.0)

(9.4)

39

95.6

4.4

0.0

4.4

83

1 MICS indicator 7.4; MDG indicator 2.1 - Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted)

a The percentage of children of primary school age out of school are those not attending school and those attending preschool


The secondary school net attendance ratio is presented in Table ED.5[3].  Nearly 92.6 percent of children age 11-17 years are attending secondary school grades. This percentage among children age 12-14 is as high as 99 percent.  The percentage among children age 11 is 93.6 percent because more than 5 percent of these children are in primary school yet. For the children age 15-17 the attendance decrease sharply reaching the minimum among children age 17 (73.3 percent).  There are no notable variations by mother’s education or socioeconomic status. 

As lower and upper secondary school attendance may be interesting individually, the tables similar to the Table ED.5 (namely, Tables ED.5A and ED.5B) are calculated for these categories can be found in Appendix G:  Additional Tables.

Table ED.5: Secondary school attendance and out of school children

Percentage of children of secondary school age attending secondary school or higher (adjusted net attendance ratio), percentage attending primary school, and percentage out of school, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Male

Female

Total

Net attendance ratio (adjusted)

Percentage of children:

Number of children

Net attendance ratio (adjusted)

Percentage of children:

Number of children

Net attendance ratio (adjusted)1

Percentage of children:

Number of children

Attending primary school

Out of schoola

Attending primary school

Out of schoola

Attending primary school

Out of schoola

                         

Total

91.3

0.8

7.9

1837

93.9

0.7

5.3

1731

92.6

0.7

6.6

3568

                         

Region

                       

Batken

93.0

0.4

6.6

176

97.7

0.0

2.3

146

95.1

0.2

4.6

322

Djalal-Abad

90.8

1.7

7.5

414

90.6

0.7

8.7

395

90.7

1.2

8.1

808

Issyk-Kul

95.8

0.0

3.7

139

94.9

2.3

2.3

148

95.3

1.2

3.0

287

Naryn

96.1

1.2

2.7

116

98.7

0.5

0.9

98

97.3

0.9

1.9

214

Osh Oblast

86.5

0.5

13.1

387

94.1

1.1

4.8

334

90.0

0.8

9.3

720

Talas

97.6

0.7

1.7

65

94.2

2.0

3.8

81

95.7

1.4

2.8

146

Chui

89.0

0.4

10.6

293

94.2

0.0

5.8

255

91.4

0.2

8.3

548

Bishkek City

97.6

0.5

1.9

177

95.5

0.4

4.1

200

96.5

0.4

3.1

377

Osh City

88.9

0.8

10.4

71

89.7

0.0

9.7

75

89.3

0.4

10.0

146

Area

                       

Urban

94.2

0.5

5.3

496

92.6

0.6

6.8

504

93.4

0.5

6.0

1000

Rural

90.3

0.9

8.8

1341

94.5

0.8

4.7

1226

92.3

0.8

6.8

2568

Age at beginning of school year

                     

11

93.0

5.5

1.5

242

94.1

5.0

0.9

243

93.6

5.2

1.2

485

12

99.7

0.3

0.0

266

98.2

0.2

1.6

273

98.9

0.2

0.8

539

13

99.6

0.0

0.4

292

98.4

0.0

1.4

267

99.0

0.0

0.9

558

14

98.6

0.0

1.4

268

98.8

0.0

1.2

245

98.7

0.0

1.3

513

15

93.1

0.0

6.9

255

97.1

0.0

2.9

248

95.1

0.0

4.9

503

16

82.3

0.0

17.7

278

92.9

0.0

6.7

221

87.0

0.0

12.8

499

17

70.6

0.0

29.1

236

76.1

0.0

23.9

234

73.3

0.0

26.6

470

Mother's education

                       

None/primary

(*)

(*)

(*)

27

(*)

(*)

(*)

9

(58.6)

(0.0)

(41.4)

36

Basic secondary

80.2

4.7

15.1

131

92.5

0.5

7.0

433

89.6

1.5

8.9

565

Complete secondary

94.5

0.9

4.6

794

98.0

0.9

1.0

721

96.2

0.9

2.9

1515

Professional primary/middle

95.3

0.2

4.5

361

98.3

0.6

1.0

245

96.5

0.4

3.1

606

Higher

98.9

0.0

1.1

270

97.9

1.5

0.4

157

98.5

0.6

0.8

427

Cannot be determinedb

77.0

0.0

22.7

255

71.8

0.0

28.2

163

75.0

0.0

24.9

419

Wealth index quintile

                       

Poorest

90.2

1.8

8.0

445

94.1

0.9

5.1

377

91.9

1.4

6.7

822

Second

90.8

0.9

8.2

389

93.1

1.3

5.4

348

91.9

1.1

6.9

736

Middle

89.4

0.6

10.1

356

94.8

0.0

5.2

345

92.0

0.3

7.7

701

Fourth  

89.7

0.2

10.1

339

91.5

1.0

7.5

365

90.6

0.6

8.7

704

Richest

97.9

0.0

2.1

309

96.8

0.5

2.7

296

97.3

0.3

2.4

604

Mother tongue of household head

                     

Kyrgyz

94.9

0.8

4.3

1354

95.8

0.7

3.4

1278

95.3

0.8

3.9

2632

Russian

91.5

0.0

8.5

96

99.7

0.3

0.0

102

95.7

0.2

4.1

198

Uzbek

81.5

0.3

18.2

303

86.7

0.8

12.5

273

84.0

0.5

15.5

576

Other language

70.0

2.2

27.8

84

80.6

2.3

17.1

76

75.0

2.3

22.7

160

Missing

(*)

(*)

(*)

1

(*)

(*)

(*)

1

(*)

(*)

(*)

2

1 MICS indicator 7.5 - Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted)

a The percentage of children of secondary school age out of school are those who are not attending primary, secondary, or higher education

b Children age 15 or higher at the time of the interview whose mothers were not living in the household

The percentage of children entering first grade who eventually reach the last grade of primary school is presented in Table ED.6. Of all children starting grade one, the majority (99.7 percent) will eventually reach grade 5.  There are no variations by background characteristics.

The MICS included only questions on school attendance in the current and previous year. Thus, the indicator is calculated synthetically by computing the cumulative probability of survival from the first to the last grade of primary school, as opposed to calculating the indicator for a real cohort which would need to be followed from the time a cohort of children entered primary school, up to the time they reached the last grade of primary school. Repeaters are excluded from the calculation of the indicator, because it is not known whether they will eventually graduate. As an example, the probability that a child will move from the first grade to the second grade is computed by dividing the number of children who moved from the first grade to the second grade (during the two consecutive school years covered by the survey) by the number of children who have moved from the first to the second grade plus the number of children who were in the first grade the previous school year, but dropped out. Both the numerator and denominator excludes children who repeated during the two school years under consideration.

Table ED.6: Children reaching last grade of primary school

Percentage of children entering first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary school (Survival rate to last grade of primary school), Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

                             Percent attending grade 1 last school year who are in grade 2 this school year

Percent attending grade 2 last school year who are attending grade 3 this school year

Percent attending grade 3 last school year who are attending grade 4 this school year

Percent who reach grade 4 of those who enter grade 11

         

Total

100.0

100.0

99.7

99.7

         

Sex

       

Male

100.0

100.0

99.3

99.3

Female

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Region

       

Batken

(100.0)

(100.0)

(100.0)

(100.0)

Djalal-Abad

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Issyk-Kul

(100.0)

(100.0)

(100.0)

(100.0)

Naryn

(100.0)

(100.0)

(100.0)

(100.0)

Osh Oblast

100.0

100.0

98.5

98.5

Talas

(100.0)

(100.0)

(*)

(*)

Chui

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Bishkek City

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Osh City

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

Area

       

Urban

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Rural

100.0

100.0

99.5

99.5

Mother's education

       

None/primary

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

Basic secondary

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Complete secondary

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Professional primary/middle

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Higher

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Cannot be determined

-

-

(*)

-

Wealth index quintile

       

Poorest

100.0

100.0

98.9

98.9

Second

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Middle

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Fourth  

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Richest

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Mother tongue of household head

     

Kyrgyz

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Russian

(100.0)

(100.0)

(*)

(*)

Uzbek

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Other language

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

1 MICS indicator 7.6; MDG indicator 2.2 - Children reaching last grade of primary

The primary school completion rate and transition rate to secondary education are presented in Table ED.7. The primary completion rate is the ratio of the total number of students, regardless of age, entering the last grade of primary school for the first time, to the number of children of the primary graduation age at the beginning of the current (or most recent) school year.

Table ED.7 shows that the primary school completion rate is 103.7 percent. 98.3 percent of the children who were attending the last grade of primary school in the previous school year were found to be attending the first grade of secondary school in the school year of the survey. The table also provides “effective” transition rate which takes account of the presence of repeaters in the final grade of primary school. This indicator better reflects situations in which pupils repeat the last grade of primary education but eventually make the transition to the secondary level. The simple transition rate tends to underestimate pupils’ progression to secondary school as it assumes that the repeaters never reach secondary school. The table shows that in total, 100.0 percent of the children in the last grade of primary school are expected to move on to secondary school. As the figure is very close to 100 percent, no variations by background characteristics were found.   

Table ED.7: Primary school completion and transition to secondary school

Primary school completion rates and transition and effective transition rates to secondary school, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Primary school completion rate1

Number of children of primary school completion age

Transition rate to secondary school2

Number of children who were in the last grade of primary school the previous year

Effective transition rate to secondary school

Number of children who were in the last grade of primary school the previous year and are not repeating that grade in the current school year

             

Total

103.7

525

98.3

489

100.0

481

             

Sex

           

Male

100.9

263

98.8

244

100.0

241

Female

106.4

261

97.8

245

100.0

240

Region

           

Batken

120.2

40

100.0

52

100.0

52

Djalal-Abad

98.0

120

98.7

99

100.0

98

Issyk-Kul

92.9

52

94.4

45

100.0

43

Naryn

97.1

34

100.0

26

100.0

26

Osh Oblast

119.9

100

98.6

107

100.0

105

Talas

117.2

23

91.3

25

100.0

23

Chui

(107.9)

81

(100.0)

57

(100.0)

57

Bishkek City

(91.6)

52

(100.0)

53

(100.0)

53

Osh City

(65.6)

23

97.0

25

(100.0)

24

Area

           

Urban

95.9

150

99.5

137

100.0

137

Rural

106.8

374

97.9

352

100.0

344

Mother's education

           

None/primary

(*)

3

(*)

4

(*)

4

Basic secondary

(101.1)

50

(96.7)

46

(100.0)

44

Complete secondary

116.8

246

98.7

245

100.0

241

Professional primary/middle

87.8

123

99.5

99

100.0

98

Higher

92.9

99

96.6

93

100.0

90

Cannot be determined

(*)

2

(*)

2

(*)

2

Wealth index quintile

         

Poorest

111.9

143

98.2

123

100.0

121

Second

111.3

96

96.4

98

100.0

94

Middle

98.9

105

98.0

94

100.0

92

Fourth  

92.5

98

100.0

83

100.0

83

Richest

99.9

83

99.3

90

100.0

90

Mother tongue of household head

         

Kyrgyz

103.6

410

98.0

380

100.0

373

Russian

(*)

27

(*)

17

(*)

17

Uzbek

102.9

73

100.0

77

100.0

77

Other language

(*)

15

(*)

15

(*)

13

1 MICS indicator 7.7 - Primary completion rate

2 MICS indicator 7.8 - Transition rate to secondary school

The ratio of girls to boys attending primary and secondary education is provided in Table ED.8. These ratios are better known as the Gender Parity Index (GPI). Notice that the ratios included here are obtained from net attendance ratios rather than gross attendance ratios. The latter provide an erroneous description of the GPI mainly because, in most cases, the majority of over-age children attending primary education tend to be boys. The table shows that gender parity for primary school is close to 1.00, indicating no difference in the attendance of girls and boys to primary school.  The GPI is 1.03 for secondary education. 


Table ED.8: Education gender parity

Ratio of adjusted net attendance ratios of girls to boys, in primary, lower secondary, upper secondary and secondary school, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Primary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), girls

Primary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), boys

Gender parity index (GPI) for primary school adjusted NAR1

Lower secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), girls

Lower secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), boys

Gender parity index (GPI) for  lower secondary school adjusted NAR3

Upper secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), girls

Upper secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), boys

Gender parity index (GPI) for upper secondary school adjusted NAR4

Secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), girls

Secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), boys

Gender parity index (GPI) for secondary school adjusted NAR2

                         

Total

99.2

99.4

1.00

97.4

97.0

1.00

81.2

74.1

1.10

93.9

91.3

1.03

                         

Region

                       

Batken

99.3

98.4

1.01

100.0

98.2

1.02

90.5

80.5

1.12

97.7

93.0

1.05

Djalal-Abad

100.0

100.0

1.00

97.3

96.1

1.01

65.0

73.9

0.88

90.6

90.8

1.00

Issyk-Kul

98.9

100.0

0.99

96.9

100.0

0.97

(85.3)

(81.1)

(1.1)

94.9

95.8

0.99

Naryn

100.0

98.6

1.01

99.4

98.0

1.01

96.1

88.7

1.08

98.7

96.1

1.03

Osh Oblast

98.5

100.0

0.98

96.3

95.1

1.01

83.8

64.0

1.31

94.1

86.5

1.09

Talas

99.2

99.0

1.00

96.6

99.1

0.97

(82.0)

(87.5)

(0.9)

94.2

97.6

0.97

Chui

100.0

100.0

1.00

97.4

96.5

1.01

(83.0)

(63.1)

(1.3)

94.2

89.0

1.06

Bishkek City

97.8

97.4

1.00

97.7

99.3

0.98

(89.8)

(93.4)

(1.0)

95.5

97.6

0.98

Osh City

98.4

98.7

1.00

95.3

94.5

1.01

(75.4)

(73.1)

(1.0)

89.7

88.9

1.01

Area

                       

Urban

98.9

98.6

1.00

96.3

98.4

0.98

81.4

81.0

1.00

92.6

94.2

0.98

Rural

99.4

99.7

1.00

97.8

96.4

1.01

81.1

71.3

1.14

94.5

90.3

1.05

Mother's education

                       

None/primary

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

Basic secondary

100.0

99.4

1.01

96.4

87.3

1.10

(0.0)

(*)

(*)

92.5

80.2

1.15

Complete secondary

99.2

99.6

1.00

98.4

98.3

1.00

97.0

75.1

1.29

98.0

94.5

1.04

Professional primary/middle

99.8

98.9

1.01

98.2

99.1

0.99

(98.7)

76.4

1.29

98.3

95.3

1.03

Higher

100.0

99.3

1.01

97.7

98.8

0.99

(*)

(99.1)

(*)

97.9

98.9

0.99

Cannot be determineda

na

na

na

(*)

93.1

(*)

71.4

70.9

1.0

71.8

77.0

0.93

Wealth index quintile

                       

Poorest

98.3

99.3

0.99

96.6

95.0

1.02

81.0

73.8

1.10

94.1

90.2

1.04

Second

100.0

100.0

1.00

96.7

97.9

0.99

77.2

68.8

1.12

93.1

90.8

1.03

Middle

98.9

98.8

1.00

98.8

96.5

1.02

80.0

70.2

1.14

94.8

89.4

1.06

Fourth  

99.5

99.5

1.00

96.7

96.6

1.00

76.7

69.5

1.10

91.5

89.7

1.02

Richest

100.0

99.2

1.01

98.4

99.8

0.99

90.6

89.7

1.01

96.8

97.9

0.99

Mother tongue of household head

                     

Kyrgyz

99.5

99.6

1.00

98.0

98.0

1.00

86.4

83.4

1.04

95.8

94.9

1.01

Russian

(100.0)

(96.7)

(1.03)

(99.5)

(97.0)

(1.0)

(*)

(*)

(*)

99.7

91.5

1.09

Uzbek

99.6

99.1

1.01

97.3

96.0

1.01

55.4

52.5

1.06

86.7

81.5

1.06

Other language

(90.6)

(100.0)

(0.91)

(84.5)

(82.3)

(1.0)

(*)

(*)

(*)

80.6

70.0

1.15

1 MICS indicator 7.9; MDG indicator 3.1 - Gender parity index (primary school)
2 MICS indicator 7.10; MDG indicator 3.1 - Gender parity index (secondary school)
3 Survey-specific indicator  - Gender parity index (lower secondary school)
4 Survey-specific indicator - Gender parity index (upper secondary school)

a Children age 15 or higher at the time of the interview whose mothers were not living in the household


Table ED.9: Out of school gender parity

Percentage of girls in the total out of school population, in primary, lower secondary, upper secondary and secondary school, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Primary school

Lower Secondary school

Upper Secondary school

Secondary school

Percentage of out of school children

Number of children of primary school age

Percentage of girls in the total out of school population of primary school age

Number of children of primary school age out of school

Percentage of out of school children

Number of children of lower secondary school age

Percentage of girls in the total out of school population of lower secondary school age

Number of children of lower secondary school age out of school

Percentage of out of school children

Number of children of upper secondary school age

Percentage of girls in the total out of school population of upper secondary school age

Number of children of upper secondary school age out of school

Percentage of out of school children

Number of children of secondary school age

Percentage of girls in the total out of school population of secondary school age

Number of children of secondary school age out of school

                                 

Total

0.7

2311

(*)

16

1.8

2599

(44.0)

47

19.5

969

37.4

189

6.6

3568

38.7

236

                                 

Region

                               

Batken

1.1

191

(*)

2

0.6

234

(*)

1

15.4

87

(*)

13

4.6

322

(*)

15

Djalal-Abad

0.0

494

-

0

1.7

596

(*)

10

26.1

212

(52.3)

55

8.1

808

(52.5)

65

Issyk-Kul

0.6

184

(*)

1

0.0

215

-

0

11.8

72

(*)

9

3.0

287

(*)

9

Naryn

0.7

133

(*)

1

0.3

169

-

0

7.8

45

(*)

4

1.9

214

(*)

4

Osh Oblast

0.8

486

(*)

4

3.3

517

(*)

17

24.4

204

(21.3)

50

9.3

720

24.2

67

Talas

0.9

133

(*)

1

0.5

115

(*)

1

11.2

32

(*)

4

2.8

146

(*)

4

Chui

0.0

372

-

0

2.8

397

(*)

11

23.0

151

(*)

35

8.3

548

(*)

46

Bishkek City

2.4

236

(*)

6

0.8

257

(*)

2

7.9

121

(*)

9

3.1

377

(*)

12

Osh City

1.5

81

(*)

1

4.1

101

(*)

4

23.3

45

(*)

10

10.0

146

(49.8)

15

Area

                               

Urban

1.3

660

(*)

8

1.8

701

(*)

13

15.9

299

50.9

48

6.0

1000

56.4

60

Rural

0.5

1651

(*)

8

1.8

1898

(*)

34

21.1

670

32.9

141

6.8

2568

32.6

175

Mother's education

                               

None/primary

(*)

27

(*)

4

(33.9)

30

(*)

10

(*)

7

(*)

5

41.4

36

(*)

15

Basic secondary

0.3

227

(*)

1

4.0

514

(*)

20

(59.0)

51

(*)

30

8.9

565

(60.5)

50

Complete secondary

0.6

1126

(*)

7

0.5

1145

(*)

5

10.4

370

(14.3)

39

2.9

1515

(16.4)

44

Professional primary/middle

0.7

484

(*)

3

0.8

487

(*)

4

12.5

119

(*)

15

3.1

606

(*)

19

Higher

0.4

444

(*)

2

0.9

365

(*)

3

0.8

62

(*)

0

0.8

427

(*)

4

Cannot be determineda

na

na

na

na

6.7

57

(*)

4

27.8

361

46.0

100

24.9

419

44.3

104

Wealth index quintile

                               

Poorest

1.2

561

(*)

7

2.4

621

(*)

15

19.8

201

(31.3)

40

6.7

822

34.9

55

Second

0.0

465

-

0

1.2

545

(*)

7

22.9

192

(33.4)

44

6.9

736

(37.1)

51

Middle

1.1

479

(*)

5

2.0

519

(*)

10

24.0

183

(33.9)

44

7.7

701

(33.5)

54

Fourth  

0.5

424

(*)

2

2.5

501

(*)

13

24.2

203

(45.6)

49

8.7

704

44.2

62

Richest

0.4

382

(*)

2

0.5

413

(*)

2

6.4

191

(*)

12

2.4

604

(*)

14

Wealth index quintile group

                             

Poorest/Second/Middle

0.8

1505

(*)

12

1.9

1684

(44.0)

32

22.2

575

32.9

128

7.1

2260

35.1

160

Fourth/Richest

0.5

806

(*)

4

1.6

915

(*)

15

15.6

394

46.9

61

5.8

1308

46.3

76

Mother tongue of household head

                             

Kyrgyz

0.5

1785

(*)

8

1.0

1956

(*)

19

12.3

677

40.3

83

3.9

2632

43.3

102

Russian

1.6

121

(*)

2

1.4

128

(*)

2

(9.1)

70

(*)

6

4.1

198

(*)

8

Uzbek

0.6

322

(*)

2

2.6

397

(*)

10

44.2

179

39.2

79

15.5

576

38.3

89

Other language

4.4

83

(*)

4

13.6

117

(*)

16

(46.9)

44

(*)

21

22.7

160

(*)

36

a Children age 15 or higher at the time of the interview whose mothers were not living in the household


The percentage of girls in the total out of school population, in both primary and secondary school, are provided in Table ED.9.The table shows that at the secondary level girls account for about 38.7 percent of the out-of-school population. In urban areas, girls compose more than half of the out-of-school population (56.4 percent) at secondary level, while in rural areas this this proportion is about one-third (32.6 percent).  .

Figure ED.1 brings together all of the attendance and progression related education indicators covered in this chapter, by sex. Information on attendance to early childhood education is also included, which was covered in Chapter 9, in Table CD.1.

Figure ED.1: Education indicators by sex, Kyrgyzstan, 2014