VI.       Child Health

Vaccinations

The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 is to reduce child mortality by two thirds between 1990 and 2015. Immunization plays a key part in this goal. In addition, the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) was endorsed by the 194 Member States of the World Health Assembly in May 2012 to achieve the Decade of Vaccines vision by delivering universal access to immunization.  Immunization has saved the lives of millions of children in the four decades since the launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1974. Worldwide there are still millions of children not reached by routine immunization and as a result, vaccine-preventable diseases cause more than 2 million deaths every year.

The WHO Recommended Routine Immunizations for Children[1] recommends all children to be vaccinated against tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, measles, hepatitis B, haemophilus influenzae type b, rotavirus, and rubella.  All doses in the primary series are recommended to be completed before the child’s first birthday, although depending on the epidemiology of disease in a country, the first doses of measles and rubella containing vaccines may be recommended at 12 months or later. The recommended number and timing of most other doses also vary slightly with local epidemiology and may include booster doses later in childhood.

The Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic accepted the above recommendations. Since 2001, the vaccination schedule followed by the National Immunization Programme provides all the above mentioned vaccinationsSince 2009, pentavalent vaccine (Penta) had been introduced to replace DPT and Hepatitis B vaccines (but first dose at birth). Besides DPT and Hepatitis B vaccines, Penta vaccine also contains three doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine.  Since 2002, measles vaccination protecting from measles, parotitis and rubella is carried out at 12 months.


Table CH.1: Vaccinations in the first years of life

Percentage of children age 12-23 months and 24-35 months vaccinated against vaccine preventable childhood diseases at any time before the survey and by their first birthday, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Children age 12-23 months:

 

Children age 24-35 months:

Vaccinated at any time before the survey according to:

Vaccinated by 12 months of agea

 

Vaccinated at any time before the survey according to:

Vaccinated by 12 months of age (measles by 24 months)a

Health facility records or vaccination card

Mother's report

Either

 

Health facility records or vaccination card

Mother's report

Either

                   

Antigen

                 

BCG1

89.7

9.9

99.6

99.6

 

87.1

11.6

98.7

98.7

Polio

                 

At birth

86.8

11.6

98.4

98.4

 

86.4

11.7

98.1

98.1

1

89.2

8.5

97.8

97.7

 

88.4

9.6

98.0

97.1

2

89.4

7.3

96.7

96.2

 

87.6

8.9

96.5

94.8

32

85.1

4.7

89.8

87.5

 

84.5

5.6

90.1

85.4

HepB

                 

At birth

87.0

11.9

98.9

98.9

 

78.7

19.4

98.1

98.1

Pentavalent (DPT+HebB+Hib)

                 

1

89.9

8.1

98.0

97.9

 

88.9

8.7

97.6

96.8

2

89.8

7.5

97.4

97.2

 

88.2

9.1

97.3

95.6

33

88.2

7.2

95.5

93.9

 

87.0

8.3

95.3

91.0

                   

Measles (MMR)

81.6

10.4

92.0

na

 

87.1

9.6

96.7

95.8

                   

Fully vaccinated5b

na

na

na

na

 

84.9

3.1

88.0

80.4

No vaccinations

0.0

0.4

0.4

0.4

 

0.0

1.2

1.2

1.2

                   

Number of children

880

880

880

880

 

939

939

939

939

1 MICS indicator 3.1 - Tuberculosis immunization coverage

2 MICS indicator 3.2 - Polio immunization coverage

3 MICS indicators 3.3, 3.5,3.6 - Pentavalent DPT+HepB+Hib vaccine coverage

4 MICS indicator 3.4; MDG indicator 4.3 - Measles immunization coverage

5 MICS indicator 3.8 - Full immunization coverage

na: not applicable

a MICS indicators 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.5, 3.6, and 3.7 refer to results of this column in the left panel; MICS indicators 3.4 and 3.8 refer to this column in the right panel

b Includes: HepB at birth, BCG, Polio3 and Pentavalent3 (DPT+HepB+Hib-3) by 12 months of age and Measles (MMR) by 24 months of age as per the vaccination schedule in Kyrgyzstan

c Measles is administered through the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine in Kyrgyzstan


Taking into consideration this vaccination schedule, the estimates for full immunization from the 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS are based on children age 24-35 months. Information on vaccination coverage was collected for all children under three years of age. All mothers (or caretakers) were asked to provide vaccination cards. However, the vaccination form (MoH Form #063) and child’s medical card (MoH Form#112) are normally kept in health clinics and very seldom at home. So vaccination information was copied from the cards onto the MICS questionnaire at health facilities and, less often, mothers recalled whether or not the child had received each of the vaccinations. The final vaccination coverage estimates are based on information obtained from both the vaccination card and the mother’s report of vaccinations received by the child. 

The percentage of children age 12-23 months and 24-35 months who have received each of the specific vaccinations by source of information (vaccination records at health facilities and mother’s recall) is shown in Table CH.1 and Figure CH.1. The denominators for the table are comprised of children age 12-23 months and 24-35 months so that only children who are old enough to be fully vaccinated are counted. In the first three columns in each panel of the table, the numerator includes all children who were vaccinated at any time before the survey according to the vaccination records at health facilities or the mother’s report. In the last column in each panel, only those children who were vaccinated before their first birthday, as recommended, are included. For children without vaccination records, the proportion of vaccinations given before the first birthday is assumed to be the same as for children with vaccination records.

Approximately 99.6 percent of children age 12-23 months received a BCG vaccination by the age of 12 months, and the first dose of Polio, Pentavalent DPT-HepB-Hib vaccine and HepB at birth vaccines was given to 98.4, 97.9 and 98.9 percent respectively.  The percentages decline slightly to 96.2 and 97.2 percent respectively for the second dose of Polio and Pentavalent DPT-HepB-Hib vaccines, and to 87.5 and 93.9 percent respectively for the third dose.

The individual coverage figures for children age 24-35 months are generally similar to those age 12-23 months suggesting that immunization coverage has been on average stable in the country in the last few years. It also shows that immunization is provided ‘timely’ which means in accordance with the timeline of the vaccination schedule without delays.  Similarly to the younger age cohort, the percentage of children age 24-35 months receiving vaccines declines slightly by the third dose.  The coverage for the measles vaccine by by their second birthday among children age 24-35 months is 95.8 percent.  As a result, the percentage of children who had all the recommended vaccinations by their second birthday is 80.4 percent.            

Figure CH.1: Vaccinations by age 12 months (measles by 24 months), Kyrgyzstan, 2014

Table CH.2 presents vaccination coverage estimates among children age 12-23 and 24-35 months by background characteristics. The figures indicate children receiving the vaccinations at any time up to the date of the survey, and are based on information from both the health facility records and mothers’(or caretakers’) reports. 

In Kyrgyzstan, by the date of interview, approximately 88 percent of children age 24-35 months received all the recommended vaccinations. This percentage is lower in urban areas (81.6 percent), in Bishkek city in particular (71.5 percent), than in rural areas (90.9 percent). 


Table CH.2: Vaccinations by background characteristics

Percentage of children age 12-23 months currently vaccinated against vaccine preventable childhood diseases, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage of children age 12-23 months who received:

Percentage with health facility records or vaccination card seen

Number of children age 12-23 months

Percentage of children age 24-35 months who received:

Percentage with health facility records or vaccination card seen

Number of children age 24-35 months

BCG

Polio

HepB

Pentavalent (DPT+HebB+Hib)

None

At birth

1

2

3

At birth

1

2

3

Measles (MMR)

Fulla

None

                                   

Total

99.6

98.4

97.8

96.7

89.8

98.9

98.0

97.4

95.5

0.4

91.4

880

96.7

88.0

1.2

90.1

939

                                   

Sex

                                 

Male

99.9

98.6

97.7

97.0

87.9

99.1

98.0

97.4

96.1

0.1

90.7

481

97.6

91.1

0.8

91.0

451

Female

99.2

98.2

97.8

96.3

92.0

98.6

97.9

97.4

94.7

0.8

92.1

399

95.9

85.0

1.5

89.2

487

Region

                                 

Batken

100.0

100.0

99.0

99.0

90.2

98.9

100.0

99.0

97.7

0.0

96.4

66

98.3

85.0

0.0

92.4

88

Djalal-Abad

99.4

99.4

98.0

97.1

92.0

99.4

98.5

98.5

96.1

0.6

96.2

194

97.4

88.0

0.9

93.6

197

Issyk-Kul

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

94.5

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

0.0

98.5

49

97.8

93.7

2.2

93.7

47

Naryn

100.0

99.0

98.6

94.7

84.6

100.0

98.6

96.9

95.9

0.0

91.3

34

97.6

89.9

0.0

93.1

38

Osh Oblast

99.1

98.7

98.2

97.1

88.5

98.3

98.8

98.2

96.8

0.9

85.0

219

98.9

95.5

0.2

85.5

188

Talas

99.5

99.0

97.9

97.9

96.8

99.0

97.9

97.9

97.5

0.5

98.6

71

94.4

92.2

5.0

90.4

66

Chui

100.0

94.7

97.2

95.4

92.3

98.3

97.2

95.6

91.3

0.0

91.5

121

95.6

88.2

3.0

91.0

158

Bishkek City

100.0

97.4

93.4

92.4

78.9

98.3

92.4

91.4

90.1

0.0

82.4

90

91.7

71.5

0.0

83.5

109

Osh City

100.0

100.0

100.0

98.5

88.0

100.0

100.0

99.5

96.3

0.0

93.0

37

99.0

87.8

0.0

95.3

46

Area

                                 

Urban

99.9

97.0

94.5

93.8

85.0

98.4

95.3

94.8

92.2

0.1

89.3

254

95.6

81.6

0.9

88.9

295

Rural

99.5

99.0

99.1

97.9

91.7

99.0

99.1

98.4

96.8

0.5

92.2

626

97.2

90.9

1.3

90.6

643

Mother’s education

                                 

None/primary

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

13

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

9

Basic secondary

100.0

97.5

97.5

94.1

89.1

97.8

97.5

97.0

95.2

0.0

87.6

98

97.2

92.4

0.0

91.0

111

Complete secondary

99.9

99.3

98.9

97.6

89.5

99.5

98.8

98.2

95.9

0.1

91.5

418

97.8

88.0

1.2

90.4

441

Professional primary/middle

100.0

97.7

98.8

98.5

90.1

98.8

97.6

97.5

94.6

0.0

91.9

130

97.3

88.5

0.7

90.7

151

Higher

99.5

98.4

95.9

95.9

90.8

99.0

97.6

96.8

95.9

0.5

92.8

220

93.8

85.0

2.1

88.0

226

Wealth index quintile

                                 

Poorest

98.5

98.3

97.9

96.7

88.8

97.3

98.2

97.6

96.5

1.5

87.8

210

94.5

81.0

0.1

87.4

193

Second

100.0

100.0

99.6

98.3

92.6

100.0

99.1

97.7

95.8

0.0

95.1

195

96.6

85.4

2.1

91.4

206

Middle

100.0

97.0

97.7

95.7

89.6

99.8

98.4

97.7

94.6

0.0

91.3

181

95.4

87.1

3.3

89.7

198

Fourth

100.0

99.5

99.5

99.2

93.7

100.0

99.5

99.5

98.4

0.0

93.2

161

97.7

94.8

0.3

95.9

158

Richest

99.7

96.9

92.7

92.7

82.6

97.0

93.6

93.5

90.9

0.3

89.4

134

99.4

92.2

0.0

86.0

184

Mother tongue of household head

                         

Kyrgyz

99.8

98.7

98.2

97.5

90.2

99.1

98.6

97.8

96.3

0.2

91.5

681

97.1

87.2

1.3

89.5

712

Russian

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

94.9

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

30

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

43

Uzbek

100.0

99.3

97.5

95.8

89.8

100.0

98.2

98.1

94.7

0.0

92.9

133

96.1

88.6

1.4

92.7

146

Other language

(93.5)

(92.5)

(92.5)

(85.7)

(80.6)

(93.5)

(92.5)

(92.5)

(85.7)

(6.5)

(80.6)

37

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

37

a Includes: BCG, Polio3, Pentavalent3 (DPT+HepB+Hib-3) and Measles (MMR) as per the vaccination schedule in Kyrgyzstan

(*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases

                     

( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases


Care of Illness

A key strategy for accelerating progress toward MDG 4 is to tackle the diseases that are the leading killers of children under 5. Diarrhoea and pneumonia are two such diseases. The Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea (GAPPD) aims to end preventable pneumonia and diarrhoea death by reducing mortality from pneumonia to 3 deaths per 1000 live births and mortality from diarrhoea to 1 death per 1000 live births by 2025. 

Table CH.4 presents the percentage of children under 5 years of age who were reported to have had an episode of diarrhoea, symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI), or fever during the 2 weeks preceding the survey.  These findings are not measures of true prevalence, and should not be used as such, but rather the period-prevalence of those illnesses over a two-week time window.

The definition of a case of diarrhoea or fever, in this survey, was the mother’s (or caretaker’s) report that the child had such symptoms over the specified period; no other evidence were sought beside the opinion of the mother. A child was considered to have had an episode of ARI if the mother (or caretaker) reported that the child had, over the specified period, an illness with a cough with rapid or difficult breathing, and whose symptoms were perceived to be due to a problem in the chest or both a problem in the chest and a blocked nose. While this approach is reasonable in the context of a MICS survey, these basically simple case definitions must be kept in mind when interpreting the findings, as well as the potential for reporting and recall biases. Further, diarrhoea, fever and ARI are not only seasonal but are also characterized by the often rapid spread of localized outbreaks from one area to another at different points in time. The timing of the survey and the location of the teams might thus considerably affect the findings, which must consequently be interpreted with caution. For these reasons, although the period-prevalence over a two-week time window is reported, these data should not be used to assess the epidemiological characteristics of these diseases but rather to obtain denominators for the indicators related to use of health services and treatment.

Table CH.4: Reported disease episodes

Percentage of children age 0-59 months for whom the mother (or caretaker) reported an episode of diarrhoea, symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI), and/or fever in the last two weeks, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage of children who in the last two weeks had:

Number of children age 0-59 months

An episode of diarrhoea

Symptoms of ARI

An episode of fever

         

Total

5.5

2.3

14.3

4577

         

Sex

       

Male

6.0

2.1

13.6

2342

Female

5.1

2.5

15.0

2235

Region

       

Batken

6.0

1.1

12.6

408

Djalal-Abad

2.5

1.2

12.9

956

Issyk-Kul

2.6

0.0

11.5

264

Naryn

2.4

0.9

11.7

195

Osh Oblast

10.1

6.2

17.5

1015

Talas

4.0

3.1

12.9

352

Chui

6.8

0.7

16.6

715

Bishkek City

3.5

0.9

11.3

474

Osh City

5.4

1.1

16.4

198

Area

       

Urban

5.3

1.2

13.8

1360

Rural

5.6

2.7

14.5

3217

Age

       

0-11 months

7.7

2.3

14.5

988

12-23 months

7.8

2.3

19.1

880

24-35 months

5.1

2.1

14.8

939

36-47 months

2.6

3.4

13.5

925

48-59 months

4.3

1.1

9.5

845

Mother’s education

       

None/primary

(3.6)

(0.0)

(4.0)

58

Basic secondary

5.8

3.4

15.3

529

Complete secondary

5.2

1.8

13.3

2102

Professional primary/middle

5.2

1.8

17.2

732

Higher

6.2

2.9

14.5

1155

Wealth index quintile

       

Poorest

4.7

1.0

11.7

986

Second

7.5

4.4

15.4

1039

Middle

5.0

3.5

17.7

951

Fourth

4.8

1.0

13.6

823

Richest

5.3

0.8

12.9

778

Mother tongue of household head

     

Kyrgyz

5.7

2.5

14.7

3534

Russian

6.8

0.0

12.1

180

Uzbek

5.4

1.7

14.0

656

Other language

1.8

1.8

10.4

205

Missing

(*)

(*)

(*)

2

( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases

   

(*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases

   

Overall, 5.5 percent of under five children were reported to have had diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey, and 2.3 percent symptoms of ARI, 14.3 percent had fever symptoms (Table CH.4).  Period-prevalence for diarrhoea ranges from 3-4 percent for children age 36-59 months to almost 8 percent for children age 0-11 and 12-23 months. This can be linked to the weaning period. There are minor differences between urban and rural areas, particularly in the case of diarrhoea, but the period-prevalence of diarrhoea, fever and ARI appear to be highest in the Osh oblast (10.1, 17.5 and  6.2 percent respectively).

Diarrhoea

Diarrhoea is among the leading causes of death among children under five worldwide. Most diarrhoea-related deaths in children are due to dehydration from loss of large quantities of water and electrolytes from the body in liquid stools. Management of diarrhoea – either through oral rehydration salts (ORS) or a recommended home fluid – can prevent many of these deaths. In addition, provision of zinc supplements has been shown to reduce the duration and severity of the illness as well as the risk of future episodes within the next two or three months. Preventing dehydration and malnutrition by increasing fluid intake and continuing to feed the child are also important strategies for managing diarrhoea.

In the MICS, mothers (or caretakers) were asked whether their child under age five years had an episode of diarrhoea in the two weeks prior to the survey. In cases where mothers reported that the child had diarrhoea, a series of questions were asked about the treatment of the illness, including what the child had been given to drink and eat during the episode and whether this was more or less than what was usually given to the child.

Table CH.5: Care-seeking during diarrhoea

Percentage of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought, by source of advice or treatment, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage of children with diarrhoea for whom:

Number of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks

Advice or treatment was sought from:

No advice or treatment sought

Health facilities or providers

Other source

A health facility or provider1, b

Public

Private

Community health providera

               

Total

50.9

4.0

0.0

1.2

51.9

45.6

253

               

Sex

             

Male

50.8

3.9

0.0

2.2

51.1

45.6

140

Female

50.9

4.1

0.0

0.0

52.9

45.6

114

Region

             

Batken

(32.7)

(3.2)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(35.8)

(64.2)

24

Djalal-Abad

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

24

Issyk-Kul

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

7

Naryn

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

5

Osh Oblast

47.8

2.2

0.0

1.3

49.3

49.3

103

Talas

(42.8)

(2.8)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(45.6)

(54.4)

14

Chui

(69.1)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(69.1)

(30.9)

49

Bishkek City

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

16

Osh City

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

11

Area

             

Urban

39.4

9.3

0.0

2.3

41.0

52.3

72

Rural

55.4

1.8

0.0

0.8

56.3

43.0

181

Age

             

0-11 months

63.1

5.4

0.0

2.1

64.1

33.8

76

12-23 months

45.3

4.7

0.0

2.0

45.3

48.0

68

24-35 months

(36.4)

(4.8)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(39.7)

(60.3)

48

36-47 months

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

24

48-59 months

(55.4)

(1.1)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(56.5)

(43.5)

37

Mother’s education

             

None/primary

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

2

Basic secondary

(53.9)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(53.9)

(46.1)

31

Complete secondary

49.6

1.6

0.0

2.7

49.6

49.2

110

Professional primary/middle

(59.1)

(6.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(63.1)

(36.9)

38

Higher

48.6

8.4

0.0

0.0

50.3

43.0

72

Wealth index quintile

             

Poorest

(43.4)

(3.3)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(46.8)

(53.2)

47

Second

57.1

0.0

0.0

1.8

57.1

41.2

78

Middle

(56.9)

(6.8)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(58.5)

(41.5)

48

Fourth

(47.1)

(1.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(48.1)

(51.9)

40

Richest

(44.1)

(11.8)

(0.0)

(4.0)

(44.1)

(44.1)

41

Mother tongue of household head

           

Kyrgyz

51.3

3.8

0.0

1.5

52.6

44.3

201

Russian

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

12

Uzbek

(49.1)

(6.9)

0.0

(0.0)

(49.1)

(50.9)

36

Other language

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

4

1 MICS indicator 3.10 - Care-seeking for diarrhoea

a Community health provider includes both public (Mobile/Outreach clinic) and private (Mobile clinic) health facilities

b Includes all public and private health facilities and providers, but excludes private pharmacy

Table CH.5 shows the percentage of children with diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey for whom advice or treatment was sought and where. Overall, a health facility or provider was seen in 51.9 percent of cases, predominantly in the public sector (50.9 percent).  The percentage of advice or treatment sought from a health facility or provider was higher among children living in rural areas (56.3 percent) compared to those in urban areas (41.0 percent).

Table CH.6: Feeding practices during diarrhoea

 

Percent distribution of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks by amount of liquids and food given during episode of diarrhoea, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 
 

Drinking practices during diarrhoea

Eating practices during diarrhoea

Number of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks

 

Child was given to drink:

Total

Child was given to eat:

Total

 

Much less

Somewhat less

About the same

More

Much less

Somewhat less

About the same

More

Nothing

 
 
                           

Total

14.5

22.4

31.8

31.4

100.0

20.0

28.1

32.0

8.5

11.4

100.0

253

 
                           

Sex

                         

Male

17.6

22.3

33.3

26.8

100.0

24.4

24.2

31.5

9.7

10.1

100.0

140

 

Female

10.6

22.4

29.9

37.0

100.0

14.7

32.9

32.6

6.9

12.9

100.0

114

 

Region

                         

Batken

(6.2)

(9.8)

(48.7)

(35.3)

100.0

(17.8)

(35.5)

(46.7)

(0.0)

(0.0)

100.0

24

 

Djalal-Abad

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

24

 

Issyk-Kul

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

7

 

Naryn

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

5

 

Osh Oblast

23.0

36.8

32.3

7.9

100.0

30.5

24.8

29.6

6.7

8.3

100.0

103

 

Talas

(23.9)

(18.7)

(9.6)

(47.8)

100.0

(25.1)

(37.9)

(11.9)

(25.1)

(0.0)

100.0

14

 

Chui

(7.7)

(21.8)

(26.7)

(43.8)

100.0

(3.7)

(29.1)

(27.7)

(7.3)

(32.2)

100.0

49

 

Bishkek City

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

16

 

Osh City

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

11

 

Area

                         

Urban

12.7

13.7

24.7

48.9

100.0

11.0

29.3

38.6

11.6

9.5

100.0

72

 

Rural

15.2

25.8

34.6

24.4

100.0

23.7

27.6

29.3

7.2

12.1

100.0

181

 

Age

                         

0-11 months

16.8

25.7

37.1

20.4

100.0

17.0

21.0

27.4

10.7

23.9

100.0

76

 

12-23 months

10.1

18.8

29.6

41.5

100.0

19.2

34.6

36.8

1.1

8.3

100.0

68

 

24-35 months

(17.0)

(21.4)

(30.2)

(31.5)

100.0

(20.0)

(23.5)

(39.6)

(9.8)

(7.1)

100.0

48

 

36-47 months

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

24

 

48-59 months

(10.7)

(18.2)

(30.3)

(40.7)

100.0

(21.1)

(39.2)

(26.4)

(9.4)

(3.9)

100.0

37

 

Mother’s education

                         

None/primary

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

2

 

Basic secondary

(18.7)

(37.7)

(23.7)

(20.0)

100.0

(37.0)

(11.4)

(18.6)

(11.8)

(21.2)

100.0

31

 

Complete secondary

16.1

20.3

37.9

25.7

100.0

21.9

25.7

38.0

4.3

10.0

100.0

110

 

Professional primary/middle

(15.8)

(25.1)

(20.9)

(38.1)

100.0

(21.4)

(45.8)

(12.2)

(14.9)

(5.8)

100.0

38

 

Higher

7.0

18.1

32.6

42.3

100.0

6.8

30.4

39.9

10.2

12.6

100.0

72

 

Wealth index quintile

                         

Poorest

(8.4)

(25.0)

(40.4)

(26.3)

100.0

(19.9)

(36.2)

(38.3)

(4.9)

(0.7)

100.0

47

 

Second

18.0

37.4

21.8

22.9

100.0

31.4

22.7

23.8

5.7

16.5

100.0

78

 

Middle

(22.0)

(18.4)

(38.4)

(21.2)

100.0

(28.0)

(24.4)

(32.8)

(6.0)

(8.8)

100.0

48

 

Fourth

(13.7)

(7.0)

(39.2)

(40.1)

100.0

(8.0)

(24.5)

(30.3)

(22.3)

(15.0)

100.0

40

 

Richest

(6.9)

(10.4)

(26.0)

(56.7)

100.0

(1.1)

(37.1)

(41.0)

(7.4)

(13.4)

100.0

41

 

Mother tongue of household head

                       

Kyrgyz

13.4

24.2

32.5

29.9

100.0

16.9

31.0

33.6

7.2

11.3

100.0

201

 

Russian

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

12

 

Uzbek

(27.0)

(20.6)

(29.8)

(22.6)

100.0

(41.4)

(16.9)

(16.8)

(13.8)

(11.1)

100.0

36

 

Other language

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

4

 

Table CH.6 provides statistics on drinking and feeding practices during diarrhoea.  Less than one third (31.4 percent) of under five children with diarrhoea were given to drink more than usual while practically the same percentage (31.8 percent) were given about the same. About 22.4 percent were given somewhat less, while 14.5 percent were given much less to drink.  68.6 percent were given to eat somewhat less, same or more (continued feeding), but one in five (20.0 percent) were given much less and 11.4 percent of children were given nothing to eat during the episode of diarrhoea.

Table CH.7: Oral rehydration solutions, recommended homemade fluids, and zinc

Percentage of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks, and treatment with oral rehydration salts (ORS), recommended homemade fluids, and zinc, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage of children with diarrhoea who received:

Number of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks

Oral rehydration salts (ORS)

Recommended homemade fluids

ORS or any recommended homemade fluid

Zinc

ORS and zinc1

Fluid from packet

Any ORS

Boiled water

Rice water

Cultured milk foods (airan, kefir)

Any recommended homemade fluid

Tablet

Syrup

Any zinc

                         

Total

33.4

33.4

88.9

51.9

40.6

93.9

95.9

8.1

10.9

15.3

8.6

253

                         

Sex

                       

Male

32.7

32.7

90.9

52.3

39.1

94.7

97.2

9.3

13.1

17.1

10.1

140

Female

34.2

34.2

86.6

51.4

42.5

92.9

94.3

6.5

8.2

13.1

6.8

114

Region

                       

Batken

(22.1)

(22.1)

(91.2)

(25.3)

(51.0)

(100.0)

(100.0)

(15.7)

(6.2)

(18.8)

(3.1)

24

Djalal-Abad

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

24

Issyk-Kul

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

7

Naryn

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

5

Osh Oblast

31.9

31.9

88.4

81.6

39.9

94.7

97.0

1.8

3.1

3.8

1.8

103

Talas

(46.9)

(46.9)

(75.4)

(31.5)

(65.6)

(84.2)

(84.2)

(32.7)

(29.7)

(35.4)

(27.6)

14

Chui

(32.0)

(32.0)

(90.8)

(19.3)

(37.5)

(90.8)

(96.5)

(10.1)

(18.6)

(26.2)

(10.9)

49

Bishkek City

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

16

Osh City

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

11

Area

                       

Urban

34.1

34.1

85.0

32.1

39.4

89.6

90.6

9.6

14.0

19.7

14.1

72

Rural

33.1

33.1

90.5

59.8

41.1

95.6

98.1

7.4

9.7

13.6

6.4

181

Age

                       

0-11 months

25.4

25.4

76.7

29.4

20.4

81.9

88.7

1.9

8.0

8.9

5.8

76

12-23 months

40.3

40.3

93.3

58.9

49.9

99.5

99.5

11.6

7.7

15.1

8.7

68

24-35 months

(23.9)

(23.9)

(90.0)

(55.6)

(48.6)

(98.0)

(98.0)

(11.0)

(24.3)

(28.5)

(15.2)

48

36-47 months

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

24

48-59 months

(47.2)

(47.2)

(98.8)

(71.7)

(57.7)

(100.0)

(100.0)

(13.4)

(11.4)

(19.4)

(9.0)

37

Mother’s education

                       

None/primary

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

2

Basic secondary

(27.1)

(27.1)

(84.0)

(57.8)

(33.7)

(86.4)

(95.5)

(12.1)

(11.5)

(18.6)

(7.3)

31

Complete secondary

32.7

32.7

92.9

57.2

48.6

97.0

97.6

6.6

12.2

15.8

8.9

110

Professional primary/middle

(28.3)

(28.3)

(90.4)

(37.2)

(39.3)

(93.7)

(93.7)

(11.2)

(8.3)

(17.3)

(6.0)

38

Higher

40.8

40.8

83.9

47.7

33.3

92.3

94.6

7.3

10.4

12.5

10.4

72

Wealth index quintile

                       

Poorest

(32.9)

(32.9)

(86.4)

(63.1)

(42.9)

(96.4)

(96.4)

(4.2)

(6.1)

(7.7)

(5.2)

47

Second

39.1

39.1

87.6

62.0

34.1

91.7

97.4

2.4

9.9

11.8

2.4

78

Middle

(26.8)

(26.8)

(92.0)

(60.4)

(48.6)

(95.4)

(95.4)

(16.6)

(14.0)

(20.3)

(11.5)

48

Fourth

(26.3)

(26.3)

(88.7)

(29.1)

(40.3)

(91.5)

(93.3)

(19.7)

(13.4)

(28.1)

(18.4)

40

Richest

(37.6)

(37.6)

(91.0)

(32.3)

(41.4)

(95.8)

(95.8)

(2.1)

(12.4)

(12.4)

(11.6)

41

Mother tongue of household head

                     

Kyrgyz

30.5

30.5

88.6

50.1

40.8

93.3

95.6

6.2

8.9

11.8

5.9

201

Russian

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

12

Uzbek

(38.8)

(38.8)

(85.7)

(68.4)

(35.3)

(94.1)

(96.2)

(14.7)

(18.0)

(28.4)

(18.8)

36

Other language

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

4

1 MICS indicator 3.11 - Diarrhoea treatment with oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc

Table CH.7 shows the percentage of children receiving ORS, various types of recommended homemade fluids and zinc during the episode of diarrhoea. Since children may have been given more than one type of liquid, the percentages do not necessarily add to 100. 93.9 percent received one of the recommended homemade fluids (cultured milk foods such as airan or kefir and boiled rice water): this percentage is 89.6 in urban areas and 95.6 percent in rural areas. About a third (33.4 percent) received fluids from ORS packets or pre-packaged ORS fluids. Zinc was more often received in urban areas (19.7 percent) than in rural areas (13.6 percent). Diarrhoea was treated with ORS and zinc in 8.6 percent of cases.  Figure CH.2 complements the data in Table CH.7.  

Figure CH.2: Children under-5 with diarrhoea who received ORS , Kyrgyzstan, 2014


Table CH.8: Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding and other treatments

 

Percentage of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks who were given oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding and percentage who were given other treatments, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 
 

Children with diarrhoea who were given:

Not given any treatment or drug

Number of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks

 

Zinc

ORS or increased fluids

ORT (ORS or recommended homemade fluids or increased fluids)

ORT with continued feeding1

Other treatments

 

Pill or syrup

Injection

Intra-venous

Home remedy, herbal medicine

Other

 

Anti- biotic

Anti-motility

Other

Unknown

Anti- biotic

Non-antibiotic

Unknown

 
 
                                   

Total

15.3

49.7

96.8

67.2

25.0

0.0

30.8

0.9

4.8

0.0

0.0

1.2

4.8

16.4

1.7

253

 
                                   

Sex

                                 

Male

17.1

46.1

97.2

64.5

24.7

0.0

35.3

1.1

5.4

0.0

0.0

0.8

2.8

18.6

1.3

140

 

Female

13.1

54.2

96.3

70.6

25.4

0.0

25.4

0.6

4.0

0.0

0.0

1.7

7.2

13.7

2.2

114

 

Region

                                 

Batken

(18.8)

(51.3)

(100.0)

(82.2)

(19.2)

(0.0)

(11.7)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(16.3)

(0.0)

24

 

Djalal-Abad

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

24

 

Issyk-Kul

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

7

 

Naryn

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

5

 

Osh Oblast

3.8

35.4

97.0

59.5

37.0

0.0

33.7

0.7

9.8

0.0

0.0

0.0

11.7

7.1

1.6

103

 

Talas

(35.4)

(69.8)

(84.2)

(65.8)

(13.4)

(0.0)

(11.3)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(3.0)

(0.0)

(8.3)

(15.8)

14

 

Chui

(26.2)

(52.6)

(96.5)

(64.1)

(15.9)

(0.0)

(39.1)

(3.2)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(24.3)

(0.0)

49

 

Bishkek City

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

16

 

Osh City

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

11

 

Area

                                 

Urban

19.7

60.3

93.7

77.9

18.4

0.0

40.3

1.0

4.6

0.0

0.0

1.5

0.0

20.2

1.5

72

 

Rural

13.6

45.5

98.1

63.0

27.7

0.0

27.1

0.9

4.8

0.0

0.0

1.1

6.6

14.9

1.7

181

 

Age

                                 

0-11 months

8.9

42.1

91.6

55.3

16.7

0.0

23.5

2.1

4.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

27.2

3.9

76

 

12-23 months

15.1

56.5

99.5

72.5

24.8

0.0

34.1

0.0

4.5

0.0

0.0

3.9

3.9

15.5

0.5

68

 

24-35 months

(28.5)

(42.2)

(98.0)

(71.8)

(33.6)

(0.0)

(34.6)

(0.0)

(4.1)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(6.7)

(3.9)

(2.0)

48

 

36-47 months

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

24

 

48-59 months

(19.4)

(62.0)

(100.0)

(75.0)

(28.5)

(0.0)

(29.5)

(1.9)

(3.8)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(1.2)

(16.8)

(10.4)

(0.0)

37

 

Mother’s education

                                 

None/primary

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

2

 

Basic secondary

(18.6)

(37.1)

(95.5)

(41.7)

(47.7)

(0.0)

(34.1)

(2.2)

(4.5)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(30.1)

(0.0)

31

 

Complete secondary

15.8

45.7

97.6

67.2

18.7

0.0

30.2

0.0

7.9

0.0

0.0

1.8

7.3

12.6

2.0

110

 

Professional primary/middle

(17.3)

(52.8)

(93.7)

(71.0)

(24.9)

(0.0)

(27.8)

(4.1)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(10.6)

(13.3)

(0.9)

38

 

Higher

12.5

61.3

97.6

78.2

22.9

0.0

32.9

0.0

2.7

0.0

0.0

1.5

0.0

18.6

2.4

72

 

Wealth index quintile

                                 

Poorest

(7.7)

(49.9)

(96.4)

(77.4)

(22.1)

(0.0)

(33.0)

(0.0)

(9.1)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(4.3)

(8.3)

(8.7)

(2.8)

47

 

Second

11.8

45.0

97.4

49.9

41.0

0.0

26.9

0.0

5.8

0.0

0.0

0.0

5.4

19.3

2.2

78

 

Middle

(20.3)

(42.1)

(95.4)

(62.5)

(15.9)

(0.0)

(31.3)

(1.4)

(2.9)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.9)

(8.3)

(11.0)

(1.7)

48

 

Fourth

(28.1)

(53.6)

(98.9)

(75.9)

(6.6)

(0.0)

(28.5)

(3.9)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(16.6)

(1.1)

40

 

Richest

(12.4)

(63.6)

(95.8)

(85.5)

(26.4)

(0.0)

(37.5)

(0.0)

(4.8)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(1.6)

(0.0)

(25.9)

(0.0)

41

 

Mother tongue of household head

                               

Kyrgyz

11.8

47.3

96.7

70.1

27.2

0.0

32.4

0.8

4.5

0.0

0.0

1.5

6.0

17.7

2.1

201

 

Russian

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

12

 

Uzbek

(28.4)

(50.5)

(96.2)

(47.5)

(19.5)

(0.0)

(24.9)

(1.9)

(8.7)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(12.0)

(0.0)

36

 

Other language

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

4

 

1 MICS indicator 3.12 - Diarrhoea treatment with oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and continued feeding

 


Table CH.8 provides the proportion of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks who received oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding, and the percentage of children with diarrhoea who received other treatments. Overall, 49.7 percent of children with diarrhoea received ORS or increased fluids, while 96.8 percent received ORT (ORS or recommended homemade fluids or increased fluids). Combining the information in Table CH.6 with that of Table CH.7 on oral rehydration therapy, it is observed that 67.2 percent of children received ORT and, at the same time, feeding was continued, as is the recommendation. Figure CH.3 complements the data in Table CH.8. 

Figure CH.3: Children under-5 with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and continued feeding, Kyrgyzstan, 2014


Table CH.9c: Source of ORS and zinc

Percentage of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks who were given ORS, and percentage given zinc, by the source of ORS and zinc, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage of children who were given as treatment for diarrhoea:

Number of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks

Percentage of children for whom the source of ORS was:

Number of children age 0-59 months who were given ORS as treatment for diarrhoea in the last two weeks

Percentage of children for whom the source of zinc was:

Number of children age 0-59 months who were given zinc as treatment for diarrhoea in the last two weeks

Health facilities or providers

Other source

 

A health facility or providerb

Health facilities or providers

A health facility or providerb

ORS

Zinc

Public

Private

DK/Missing

Public

Private

                           

Total

33.4

15.3

253

27.5

68.0

4.0

0.5

95.5

84

(8.4)

(91.6)

(100.0)

39

                           

Sex

                         

Male

32.7

17.1

140

(29.0)

(68.7)

(1.4)

(0.9)

(97.7)

46

(13.6)

(86.4)

(100.0)

24

Female

34.2

13.1

114

(25.8)

(67.2)

(7.0)

(0.0)

(93.0)

39

(*)

(*)

(*)

15

Area

                         

Urban

34.1

19.7

72

(28.1)

(70.3)

(0.0)

(1.6)

(98.4)

25

(*)

(*)

(*)

14

Rural

33.1

13.6

181

(27.2)

(67.1)

(5.6)

(0.0)

(94.4)

60

(*)

(*)

(*)

25

a Community health provider includes both public (Mobile/Outreach clinic) and private (Mobile clinic) health facilities

b Includes all public and private health facilities and providers

                   

cFigures by other background characteristics are not shown due to low number of cases per disaggregation category 


Table CH.9 provides information on the source of ORS and zinc for children who benefitted from these treatments. One third of children (33.4 percent) were given ORS as treatment for diarrhoea and nearly 15.3 percent were given zinc.  The main source of ORS is the private sector (68 percent). 

Acute Respiratory Infections

Symptoms of ARI are collected during the 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS to capture pneumonia disease, the leading cause of death in children under five. Once diagnosed, pneumonia is treated effectively with antibiotics. Studies have shown a limitation in the survey approach of measuring pneumonia because many of the suspected cases identified through surveys are in fact, not true pneumonia.[2] While this limitation does not affect the level and patterns of care-seeking for suspected pneumonia, it limits the validity of the level of treatment of pneumonia with antibiotics, as reported through household surveys. The treatment indicator described in this report must therefore be taken with caution, keeping in mind that the accurate level is likely higher.

Table CH.10 presents the percentage of children under 5 years with symptoms of ARI in the two weeks preceding the survey for whom care was sought, by source of care and the percentage who received antibiotics. It also presents the use of antibiotics by sex, age, region, area, age, and socioeconomic factors. In the country, within the two weeks prior to the survey, 59.7 percent of children age 0-59 months with symptoms of ARI were taken to a qualified provider and 84.7 percent of under-5 children with symptoms of ARI received antibiotics. Medical treatment was primarily provided in public health institutions (57.1 percent), while mostly private providers (77.7 percent) supplied antibiotics.


Table CH.10d Care-seeking for and antibiotic treatment of symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI)

Percentage of children age 0-59 months with symptoms of ARI in the last two weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought, by source of advice or treatment, and percentage of children with symptoms who were given antibiotics, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage of children with symptoms of ARI for whom:

Percentage of children with symptoms of ARI in the last two weeks who were given antibiotics2

Number of children with symptoms of ARI in the last two weeks who were given antibiotics

Percentage of children with symptoms of ARI for whom the source of antibiotics was:

Number of children with symptoms of ARI in the last two weeks who were given antibiotics

Advice or treatment was sought from:

No advice or treatment sought

Health facilities or providers

Other source

A health facility or provider1, b

Health facilities or providers

Other source

A health facility or providerc

Public

Private

Community health providera

Public

Private

Community health providera

                             

Total

57.1

2.6

0.0

1.3

59.7

39.0

84.7

103

15.9

77.7

0.0

6.0

93.5

87

                             

Sex

                           

Male

(55.8)

(0.5)

(0.0)

(2.9)

(56.3)

(40.9)

(75.6)

48

(15.9)

(72.6)

(0.0)

(10.4)

(88.6)

36

Female

58.2

4.4

0.0

0.0

62.7

37.3

92.7

55

(15.9)

(81.2)

(0.0)

(2.9)

(97.1)

51

Area

                           

Urban

(46.5)

(16.1)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(62.6)

(37.4)

(88.4)

17

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

15

Rural

59.1

0.0

0.0

1.6

59.1

39.3

84.0

86

16.2

76.4

0.0

6.8

92.7

73

1 MICS indicator 3.13 - Care-seeking for children with acute respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms

2 MICS indicator 3.14 - Antibiotic treatment for children with ARI symptoms

a Community health provider includes both public (Mobile/Outreach clinic) and private (Mobile clinic) health facilities 

b Includes all public and private health facilities and providers, but excludes private pharmacy 

c Includes all public and private health facilities and providers 

dFigures by other background characteristics are not shown due to low number of cases per disaggregation category


Table CH.11: Knowledge of the two danger signs of pneumonia

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who are mothers (or caretakers) of children under age 5 by symptoms that would cause them to take a child under age 5 immediately to a health facility, and percentage of mothers who recognize fast or difficult breathing as signs for seeking care immediately, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

 

Percentage of mothers (or caretakers) of children age 0-59 months who think that a child should be taken immediately to a health facility if the child:

Mothers (or caretakers) who recognize at least one of the two danger signs of pneumonia (fast and/or difficult breathing)

Number of women age 15-49 years who are mothers (or caretakers) of children under age 5

Is not able to drink or breastfeed

Becomes sicker

Develops a fever

Has fast breathing

Has difficult breathing

Has blood in stool

Is drinking poorly

Has other symptoms

                     

Total

30.1

51.5

91.2

22.7

31.9

20.7

16.7

5.9

44.7

2886

                     

Region

                   

Batken

19.1

38.0

92.5

35.4

43.1

29.7

8.2

10.5

60.2

261

Djalal-Abad

59.0

77.3

92.2

15.0

21.6

24.0

24.1

7.4

31.7

581

Issyk-Kul

26.8

55.5

84.7

56.8

49.3

13.2

14.7

1.2

68.5

175

Naryn

33.7

38.9

89.9

40.0

26.3

3.3

8.1

4.1

52.4

122

Osh Oblast

37.3

68.1

86.9

25.7

37.9

40.3

34.0

0.5

53.0

598

Talas

1.6

34.2

94.6

20.5

20.3

1.1

1.7

0.1

29.7

219

Chui

12.2

35.7

89.6

9.0

21.9

9.4

5.4

9.4

29.5

476

Bishkek City

23.6

36.3

97.4

17.1

48.7

16.6

12.4

11.4

57.5

330

Osh City

21.7

17.6

97.8

24.1

22.6

8.5

9.5

4.6

42.8

125

Area

                   

Urban

27.4

40.8

94.1

20.9

35.9

17.8

15.1

8.4

47.7

899

Rural

31.3

56.3

89.8

23.5

30.1

22.0

17.4

4.7

43.3

1987

Education

                   

None/primary

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

Basic secondary

36.2

55.3

88.4

19.4

28.3

23.5

17.4

5.8

40.4

333

Complete secondary

33.7

55.1

91.1

25.1

31.7

21.7

18.7

4.1

46.8

1281

Professional primary/middle

22.6

47.0

90.8

21.3

30.5

20.4

13.3

8.3

40.1

451

Higher

26.8

46.3

93.8

21.9

34.9

17.9

15.9

7.7

46.5

788

Wealth index quintile

                   

Poorest

34.0

58.8

89.2

28.8

31.2

21.7

17.8

4.4

47.3

598

Second

36.2

59.1

88.7

26.6

32.9

28.7

20.1

4.1

47.4

624

Middle

30.2

52.2

92.2

21.0

29.0

18.8

17.4

3.3

41.2

588

Fourth

22.8

43.3

90.7

19.3

29.6

18.0

13.3

7.3

41.2

536

Richest

26.0

41.9

95.5

16.8

36.9

15.2

14.1

10.9

45.9

541

Mother tongue of household head

                 

Kyrgyz

29.5

51.2

91.7

23.9

33.2

20.5

16.8

5.2

46.4

2172

Russian

15.9

46.9

95.2

15.9

34.4

11.2

9.9

16.9

41.1

137

Uzbek

39.9

56.1

90.8

21.4

25.8

25.1

20.7

4.2

39.5

447

Other language

22.7

45.2

79.0

13.6

27.2

19.5

8.1

11.2

36.6

129


Mothers’ knowledge of danger signs is an important determinant of care-seeking behaviour. In the MICS, mothers (or caretakers) were asked to report symptoms that would cause them to take a child under-five for care immediately at a health facility. Issues related to knowledge of danger signs of pneumonia are presented in Table CH.11. Overall, only 44.7 percent of women know at least one of the two danger signs of pneumonia – fast and/or difficult breathing - as symptoms for taking children immediately to a health care provider. About 23 percent of mothers identified fast breathing and about 32 percent difficult breathing as symptoms for taking children immediately to a health care provider. The awareness range from 68.5 percent in Issyk-Kul oblast to nearly 30 percent in Chui and Talas oblasts.

Solid Fuel Use

More than 3 billion people around the world rely on solid fuels for their basic energy needs, including cooking and heating. Solid fuels include biomass fuels, such as wood, charcoal, crops or other agricultural waste, dung, shrubs and straw, and coal. Cooking and heating with solid fuels leads to high levels of indoor smoke which contains a complex mix of health-damaging pollutants. The main problem with the use of solid fuels is their incomplete combustion, which produces toxic elements such as carbon monoxide, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and sulphur dioxide (SO2), among others. Use of solid fuels increases the risks of incurring acute respiratory illness, pneumonia, chronic obstructive lung disease, cancer, and possibly tuberculosis, asthma, or cataracts, and may contribute to low birth weight of babies born to pregnant women exposed to smoke. The primary indicator for monitoring use of solid fuels is the proportion of the population using solid fuels as the primary source of domestic energy for cooking, shown in Table CH.12.

Table CH.12: Solid fuel use

 

Percent distribution of household members according to type of cooking fuel mainly used by the household, and percentage of household members living in households using solid fuels for cooking, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

   

Percentage of household members in households mainly using:

Number of household members

Electricity

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

Natural Gas

Biogas

Solid fuels

No food cooked in the household

Missing

 

Solid fuels for cooking1

Coal/ Lignite

Char-
coal

Wood

Straw/ Shrubs/ Grass

Animal dung

Agricultural crop residue

Total

                               

Total

52.6

4.6

13.4

0.0

0.1

0.1

27.6

0.1

1.1

0.5

0.0

0.0

100.0

29.3

29786

                               

Region

                             

Batken

28.6

0.7

1.4

0.0

0.3

0.1

68.0

0.3

0.6

0.0

0.0

0.0

100.0

69.3

2432

Djalal-Abad

47.7

0.0

6.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

42.0

0.1

1.6

2.2

0.0

0.0

100.0

45.9

5883

Issyk-Kul

97.8

0.0

0.0

0.5

0.0

0.3

1.2

0.0

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

100.0

1.7

2245

Naryn

85.1

1.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

1.7

0.0

11.8

0.0

0.1

0.0

100.0

13.7

1411

Osh Oblast

33.8

0.3

4.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

61.7

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

100.0

61.7

5900

Talas

92.2

1.0

1.9

0.0

0.0

0.1

4.6

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

100.0

5.0

1519

Chui

57.7

17.1

19.9

0.0

0.1

0.4

4.2

0.1

0.3

0.1

0.0

0.1

100.0

5.2

5312

Bishkek City

33.9

10.2

55.7

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

100.0

0.2

3812

Osh City

81.0

1.2

9.0

0.2

0.0

0.0

7.4

0.0

1.1

0.0

0.0

0.2

100.0

8.4

1273

Area

                             

Urban

53.4

5.8

33.5

0.1

0.0

0.1

6.9

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

100.0

7.2

9393

Rural

52.3

4.1

4.1

0.0

0.1

0.1

37.1

0.1

1.5

0.7

0.0

0.0

100.0

39.5

20393

Education of household head

                           

None/primary

43.2

3.7

0.9

0.0

0.0

0.0

50.4

0.0

1.3

0.4

0.0

0.0

100.0

52.1

1545

Basic secondary

54.7

3.8

5.8

0.0

0.2

0.1

33.2

0.0

1.7

0.5

0.0

0.0

100.0

35.6

3391

Complete secondary

53.9

3.3

8.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

32.4

0.1

1.3

0.8

0.0

0.0

100.0

34.8

12588

Professional primary/middle

54.6

6.4

15.3

0.0

0.1

0.0

22.3

0.1

0.7

0.3

0.0

0.1

100.0

23.6

6387

Higher

49.0

6.3

30.3

0.1

0.0

0.0

13.7

0.0

0.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

100.0

14.2

5865

Missing

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

100.0

(*)

9

Wealth index quintiles

                             

Poorest

44.4

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

50.3

0.2

3.6

1.2

0.0

0.0

100.0

55.4

5957

Second

51.0

0.2

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.2

46.5

0.0

1.4

0.4

0.0

0.0

100.0

48.5

5953

Middle

64.3

1.9

1.2

0.0

0.0

0.2

31.3

0.1

0.3

0.7

0.0

0.0

100.0

32.6

5961

Fourth

66.7

10.7

12.6

0.1

0.1

0.1

9.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

100.0

9.7

5961

Richest

36.7

10.1

52.7

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

100.0

0.3

5954

Mother tongue of household head

                           

Kyrgyz

56.6

3.6

10.1

0.0

0.1

0.1

27.8

0.0

1.4

0.2

0.0

0.0

100.0

29.6

21385

Russian

36.4

13.8

49.2