Survey implementation

Sample frame

-    Updated

2009 Population Census

March-April, 2014

Questionnaires

Household

Women (age 15-49)

Children under five

Questionnaire for Vaccination Records at Health Facility

Interviewer training

April, 2014

Fieldwork

April-June, 2014

Survey sample    

     

Households

-    Sampled

-    Occupied

-    Interviewed

-    Response rate (percent)

7,190

7,062

6,934

98.2

Children under five

-     Eligible

-     Mothers (or caretakers) interviewed

-     Response rate (percent)

4,611

4,577

99.3

Women

-    Eligible for interviews

-    Interviewed

-    Response rate (percent)

6,995

6,854

98.0

   

 

Survey population

 

Average household size

4.3

Percentage of population living in

-     Urban areas

-     Rural areas

-     Batken

-     Djalal-Abad

-     Issyk-Kul

-     Naryn

-     Osh

-     Talas

-     Chui

-     Bishkek City

-     Osh City

31.5

68.5

8.2

19.8

7.5

4.7

19.8

5.1

17.8

12.8

4.3

Percentage of population under:

-    Age 5

-    Age 18

14.2

39.1

Percentage of women age 15-49 years with at least one live birth in the last 2 years

24.4

   

 

Housing characteristics

 

Household or personal assets

Percentage of households with

-        Electricity

-        Finished floor

-        Finished roofing

-        Finished walls

99.8

97.4

97.8

61.8

 

Percentage of households that own

-        A television

-        A refrigerator

-        Agricultural land

-        Farm animals/livestock

98.9

84.8

61.8

48.5

 
 
 
 

Mean number of persons per room

used for sleeping

2.16

 

Percentage of households where at least a member has or owns a

-        Mobile phone

-        Car

98.0

48.7

 
 


Summary Table of Findings[1]

Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Indicators, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

Child mortality

 

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

ValueA

1.1

 

Neonatal mortality rate

Probability of dying within the first month of life

16.6

1.2

MDG 4.2

Infant mortality rate

Probability of dying between birth and the first birthday

23.6

1.3

 

Post-neonatal mortality rate

Difference between infant and neonatal mortality rates

6.9

1.4

 

Child mortality rate

Probability of dying between the first and the fifth birthdays

5.9

1.5

MDG 4.1

Under-five mortality rate

Probability of dying between birth and the fifth birthday

29.3

A Indicator values are per 1,000 live births and refer to the five-year period before the survey

Nutrition

Nutritional status

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

2.1a

2.1b

MDG 1.8

Underweight prevalence

(a) Moderate and severe

(b)  Severe

Percentage of children under age 5 who fall below

(a)  minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe)

(b)  minus three standard deviations (severe)

of the median weight for age of the WHO standard

2.8

0.6

2.2a

2.2b

 

Stunting prevalence

(a)  Moderate and severe

(b)  Severe

Percentage of children under age 5 who fall below

(a) minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe)

(b) minus three standard deviations (severe)

of the median height for age of the WHO standard

12.9

3.4

2.3a

2.3b

 

Wasting prevalence

(a)  Moderate and severe

(b)  Severe

Percentage of children under age 5 who fall below

(a) minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe)

(b) minus three standard deviations (severe)

of the median weight for height of the WHO standard

2.8

0.8

2.4

 

Overweight prevalence

Percentage of children under age 5 who are above two standard deviations of the median weight for height of the WHO standard

7.0

 

Breastfeeding and infant feeding

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

2.5

Children ever breastfed

Percentage of women with a live birth in the last 2 years who breastfed their last live-born child at any time

97.6

2.6

Early initiation of breastfeeding

Percentage of women with a live birth in the last 2 years who put their last newborn to the breast within one hour of birth

82.5

2.7

Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months

Percentage of infants under 6 months of age who are exclusively breastfed[i]

41.1

2.8

Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months

Percentage of infants under 6 months of age who received breast milk as the predominant source of nourishment[ii] during the previous day

69.5

2.9

Continued breastfeeding at 1 year

Percentage of children age 12-15 months who received breast milk during the previous day

60.7

2.10

Continued breastfeeding at 2 years

Percentage of children age 20-23 months who received breast milk during the previous day

22.5

2.11

Median duration of breastfeeding

The age in months when 50 percent of children age 0-35 months did not receive breast milk during the previous day

15.4

2.12

Age-appropriate breastfeeding

Percentage of children age 0-23 months appropriately fed[iii] during the previous day

50.9

2.13

Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods

Percentage of infants age 6-8 months who received solid, semi-solid or soft foods during the previous day

85.4

2.14

Milk feeding frequency for non-breastfed children

Percentage of non-breastfed children age 6-23 months who received at least 2 milk feedings during the previous day

62.8

2.15

Minimum meal frequency

Percentage of children age 6-23 months who received solid, semi-solid and soft foods (plus milk feeds for non-breastfed children) the minimum number of times[iv] or more during the previous day

80.7

2.16

Minimum dietary diversity

Percentage of children age 6–23 months who received foods from 4 or more food groups[v] during the previous day

50.9

2.17a

2.17b

Minimum acceptable diet

(a) Percentage of breastfed children age 6–23 months who had at least the minimum dietary diversity and the minimum meal frequency during the previous day

(b) Percentage of non-breastfed children age 6–23 months who received at least 2 milk feedings and had at least the minimum dietary diversity not including milk feeds and the minimum meal frequency during the previous day

36.7

33.8

2.18

Bottle feeding

Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were fed with a bottle during the previous day

 

29.8

 

Salt iodization

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

2.19

Iodized salt consumption

Percentage of households with salt testing 15 parts per million or more of iodate

92.8

 

 

Low-birthweight

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

2.20

Low-birthweight infants

Percentage of most recent live births in the last 2 years weighing below 2,500 grams at birth

5.9

2.21

Infants weighed at birth

Percentage of most recent live births in the last 2 years who were weighed at birth

97.5


 

Child health

Vaccinations

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

3.1

 

Tuberculosis immunization coverage

Percentage of children age 12-23 months who received BCG vaccine by their first birthday

99.6

3.2

 

Polio immunization coverage

Percentage of children age 12-23 months who received the third dose of OPV vaccine (OPV3) by their first birthday

87.5

3.3

3.5

3.6

Pentavalent DPT+HepB+Hib immunization coverage

Percentage of children age 12-23 months who received the third dose of Pentavalent DPT+HepB+Hib vaccine by their first birthday

93.9

3.4

MDG 4.3

Measles immunization coverage

Percentage of children age 24-35 months who received measles vaccine by their second birthday

95.8

3.8

 

Full immunization coverage

Percentage of children age 24-35 months who received all[vi] vaccinations recommended in the national immunization schedule by their first birthday (measles by second birthday)

80.4

 

Diarrhoea

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

-

Children with diarrhoea

Percentage of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks

5.5

3.10

Care-seeking for diarrhoea

Percentage of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider

31.4

3.11

Diarrhoea treatment with oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc

Percentage of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks who received ORS and zinc

8.6

3.12

Diarrhoea treatment with oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and continued feeding

Percentage of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks who received ORT (ORS packet, pre-packaged ORS fluid, recommended homemade fluid or increased fluids) and continued feeding during the episode of diarrhoea

67.2

 

Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) symptoms

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

-

Children with ARI symptoms

Percentage of children under age 5 with ARI symptoms in the last 2 weeks

2.3

3.13

Care-seeking for children with ARI symptoms

Percentage of children under age 5 with ARI symptoms in the last 2 weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider

59.7

3.14

Antibiotic treatment for children with ARI symptoms

Percentage of children under age 5 with ARI symptoms in the last 2 weeks who received antibiotics

84.7

 

Solid fuel use

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

3.15

Use of solid fuels for cooking

Percentage of household members in households that use solid fuels as the primary source of domestic energy to cook

29.3

Water and sanitation

Water and sanitation

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

4.1

MDG 7.8

Use of improved drinking water sources

Percentage of household members using improved sources of drinking water

87.0

4.2

 

Water treatment

Percentage of household members in households using unimproved drinking water who use an appropriate treatment method

77.2

4.3

MDG 7.9

Use of improved sanitation

Percentage of household members using improved sanitation facilities which are not shared

97.5

4.4

 

Safe disposal of child’s faeces

Percentage of children age 0-2 years whose last stools were disposed of safely

75.8

4.5

 

Place for handwashing

Percentage of households with a specific place for hand washing where water and soap or other cleansing agent are present

94.5

4.6

 

Availability of soap or other cleansing agent

Percentage of households with soap or other cleansing agent

96.8

Reproductive health

Contraception and unmet need

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

-

 

Total fertility rate

Total fertility rateA for women age 15-49 years

4.0

5.1

MDG 5.4

Adolescent birth rate

Age-specific fertility rateA for women age 15-19 years

65

5.2

 

Early childbearing

Percentage of women age 20-24 years who had at least one live birth before age 18

3.5

5.3

MDG 5.3

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Percentage of women age 15-49 years currently married or in union who are using (or whose partner is using) a (modern or traditional) contraceptive method

42.0

5.4

MDG 5.6

Unmet need

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who are currently married or in union who are fecund and want to space their births or limit the number of children they have and who are not currently using contraception

19.1

 

Maternal and newborn health

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

5.5a

5.5b

MDG 5.5 MDG 5.5

Antenatal care coverage

Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years who were attended during their last pregnancy that led to a live birth

(a) at least once by skilled health personnel

(b) at least four times by any provider

98.4

94.6

5.6

 

Content of antenatal care

Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years who had their blood pressure measured and gave urine and blood samples during the last pregnancy that led to a live birth

98.2

5.7

MDG 5.2

Skilled attendant at delivery

Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years who were attended by skilled health personnel during their most recent live birth

98.4

5.8

 

Institutional deliveries

Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years whose most recent live birth was delivered in a health facility

98.3

5.9

 

Caesarean section

Percentage of women age 15-49 years whose most recent live birth in the last 2 years was delivered by caesarean section

7.4

 

Post-natal health checks

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

5.10

Post-partum stay in health facility

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who stayed in the health facility for 12 hours or more after the delivery of their most recent live birth in the last 2 years

99.8

5.11

Post-natal health check for the newborn

Percentage of last live births in the last 2 years who received a health check while in facility or at home following delivery, or a post-natal care visit within 2 days after delivery

98.5

5.12

Post-natal health check for the mother

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who received a health check while in facility or at home following delivery, or a post-natal care visit within 2 days after delivery of their most recent live birth in the last 2 years

97.8

 

Child development

Child development

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

6.1

Attendance to early childhood education

Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are attending an early childhood education programme

22.7

6.2

Support for learning

Percentage of children age 36-59 months with whom an adult has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the last 3 days

72.1

6.3

Father’s support for learning

Percentage of children age 36-59 months whose biological father has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the last 3 days

2.8

6.4

Mother’s support for learning

Percentage of children age 36-59 months whose biological mother has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the last 3 days

29.7

6.5

Availability of children’s books

Percentage of children under age 5 who have three or more children’s books

27.3

6.6

Availability of playthings

Percentage of children under age 5 who play with two or more types of playthings

59.3

6.7

Inadequate care

Percentage of children under age 5 left alone or in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age for more than one hour at least once in the last week

4.5

6.8

Early child development index

Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are developmentally on track in at least three of the following four domains: literacy-numeracy, physical, social-emotional, and learning

78.3

 

Literacy and education

Literacy and education

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

7.1

MDG 2.3

Literacy rate among young women

Percentage of young women age 15-24 years who are able to read a short simple statement about everyday life or who attended secondary or higher education

99.3

7.2

 

School readiness

Percentage of children in first grade of primary school who attended pre-school during the previous school year

43.1

7.3

 

Net intake rate in primary education

Percentage of children of school-entry age who enter the first grade of primary school

94.9

7.4

MDG 2.1

Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted)

Percentage of children of primary school age currently attending primary or secondary school

99.3

7.5

 

Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted)

Percentage of children of secondary school age currently attending secondary school or higher

85.0

SS[vii]

 

Lower secondary schoolA net attendance ratio (adjusted)

Percentage of children of lower secondary school age currently attending lower secondary school or higher

96.0

SS

 

Upper secondary schoolB net attendance ratio (adjusted)

Percentage of children of upper secondary school age currently attending upper secondary school or higher

57.5

7.6

MDG 2.2

Children reaching last grade of primary

Percentage of children entering the first grade of primary school who eventually reach last grade

99.7

7.7

 

Primary completion rate

Number of children attending the last grade of primary school (excluding repeaters) divided by number of children of primary school completion age (age appropriate to final grade of primary school)

103.7

7.8

 

Transition rate to secondary school

Number of children attending the last grade of primary school during the previous school year who are in the first grade of secondary school during the current school year divided by number of children attending the last grade of primary school during the previous school year

98.1

7.9

MDG 3.1

Gender parity index (primary school)

Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for girls divided by primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for boys

1.00

7.10

MDG 3.1

Gender parity index (secondary school)

Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for girls divided by secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for boys

1.01

SS

 

Gender parity index

(lower secondary school)

Lower secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for girls divided by lower secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for boys

1.00

SS

 

Gender parity index

(upper secondary school)

Upper secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for girls divided by upper secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for boys

0.94

A Lower secondary school consists of grades 5-9 of secondary school.

B Upper secondary school consist of grades 10-11 of secondary school.

 

Child protection

Birth registration

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

8.1

Birth registration

Percentage of children under age 5 whose births are reported registered

97.7

 

Child labour

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

8.2

Child labour

Percentage of children age 5-17 years who are involved in child labour[viii]

25.8

 

Child discipline

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

8.3

Violent discipline

Percentage of children age 1-14 years who experienced psychological aggression or physical punishment during the last one month

57.1

 

Early marriage and polygyny

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

8.4

Marriage before age 15

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who were first married or in union before age 15

0.4

8.5

Marriage before age 18

Percentage of women age 20-49 years who were first married or in union before age 18

12.7

8.6

Young people age 15-19 years currently married or in union

Percentage of young women age 15-19 years who are married or in union

13.9

8.7

Polygyny

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who are in a polygynous union

0.9

8.8a

8.8b

Spousal age difference

Percentage of young women who are married or in union and whose spouse is 10 or more years older,

(a) among women age 15-19 years,

(b) among women age 20-24 years

6.9

5.9

 

Attitudes towards domestic violence

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

8.12

Attitudes towards domestic violence

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who state that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife in at least one of the following circumstances: (1) she goes out without telling him, (2) she neglects the children, (3) she argues with him, (4) she refuses sex with him, (5) she burns the food

32.8

 


Children’s living arrangements

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

8.13

Children’s living arrangements

Percentage of children age 0-17 years living with neither biological parent

9.9

8.14

Prevalence of children with one or both parents dead

Percentage of children age 0-17 years with one or both biological parents dead

3.4

8.15

Children with at least one parent living abroad

Percentage of children 0-17 years with at least one biological parent living abroad

11.2

HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

-

 

Have heard of AIDS

Percentage of people age 15-49 years who have heard of AIDS

95.1

9.1

MDG 6.3

Knowledge about HIV prevention among young people

Percentage of young women age 15-24 years who correctly identify ways of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV[ix], and who reject major misconceptions about HIV transmission[x]

19.8

9.2

 

Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who correctly identify all three means[xi] of mother-to-child transmission of HIV

64.2

9.3

 

Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV

Percentage of women age 15-49 years expressing accepting attitudes on all four questions[xii] toward people living with HIV

2.4

 

HIV testing

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

9.4

Women who know where to be tested for HIV

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who state knowledge of a place to be tested for HIV

79.0

9.5

Women who have been tested for HIV and know the results

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who have been tested for HIV in the last 12 months and who know their results

19.9

9.7

HIV counselling during antenatal care

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who had a live birth in the last 2 years and received antenatal care during the pregnancy of their most recent birth, reporting that they received counselling on HIV during antenatal care

73.4

9.8

HIV testing during antenatal care

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who had a live birth in the last 2 years and received antenatal care during the pregnancy of their most recent birth, reporting that they were offered and accepted an HIV test during antenatal care and received their results

78.2

 

Access to mass media and ICT

Use of information/communication technology

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

10.2

Use of computers

Percentage of young women age 15-24 years who used a computer during the last 12 months

64.1

10.3

Use of internet

Percentage of young women age 15-24 years who used the internet during the last 12 months

73.0

 

Subjective well-being

Subjective well-being

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

11.1

Life satisfaction

Percentage of young women age 15-24 years who are very or somewhat satisfied with their life, overall

96.1

11.2

Happiness

Percentage of young women age 15-24 years who are very or somewhat happy

96.0

11.3

Perception of a better life

Percentage of young women age 15-24 years whose life improved during the last one year, and who expect that their life will be better after one year

70.0

Tobacco and alcohol use

Tobacco use

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

12.1

Tobacco use

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who smoked cigarettes, or used smoked or smokeless tobacco products at any time during the last one month

2.9

12.2

Smoking before age 15

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who smoked a whole cigarette before age 15

0.5

 

Alcohol use

MICS Indicator

Indicator name

Description

Value

12.3

Use of alcohol

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who had at least one alcoholic drink at any time during the last one month

10.0

12.4

Use of alcohol before age 15

Percentage of women age 15-49 years who had at least one alcoholic drink before age 15

0.4


[1] See Appendix E for a detailed description of MICS indicators



[i] Infants receiving breast milk, and not receiving any other fluids or foods, with the exception of oral rehydration solution, vitamins, mineral supplements and medicines

[ii] Infants receiving breast milk and certain fluids (water and water-based drinks, fruit juice, ritual fluids, oral rehydration solution, drops, vitamins, minerals, and medicines), but do not receive anything else (in particular, non-human milk and food-based fluids)

[iii] Infants age 0-5 months who are exclusively breastfed, and children age 6-23 months who are breastfed and ate solid, semi-solid or soft foods

[iv] Breastfeeding children: Solid, semi-solid, or soft foods, two times for infants age 6-8 months, and three times for children 9-23 months; Non-breastfeeding children: Solid, semi-solid, or soft foods, or milk feeds, four times for children age 6-23 months

[v] The indicator is based on consumption of any amount of food from at least 4 out of the 7 following food groups: 1) grains, roots and tubers, 2) legumes and nuts, 3) dairy products (milk, yogurt, cheese), 4) flesh foods (meat, fish, poultry and liver/organ meats), 5) eggs, 6) vitamin-A rich fruits and vegetables, and 7) other fruits and vegetables

[vi] Full vaccination includes the following: BCG, Polio at birth, Polio1, Polio2, Polio3, HepB at birth, Pentavalent1 DPT1+HepB1+Hib1, Pentavalent2 DPT2+HepB2+Hib2, Pantevalent3 DPT3+HepB3+Hib3 and Measles.

[vii]SS (survey-specific) denotes an indicator calculated by introduction of a non-standard module or question(s) to this survey that is not part of the global MICS5 Questionnaires or by applying a non-standard calculation method that is not included in the global MICS5 Tabulation Plan

[viii]Children involved in child labour are defined as children involved in economic activities at or above the age-specific thresholds, children involved in household chores at or above the age-specific thresholds, and children involved in hazardous work

[ix]Using condoms and limiting sex to one faithful, uninfected partner

[x]The two misconceptions about HIV transmission that are the most common in Kyrgyzstan and are therefore included in the indicator calculation are: i) HIV can be transmitted by mosquito bites, and ii) HIV can be transmitted through saliva by kissing with someone with HIV.

[xi]Transmission during pregnancy, during delivery, and by breastfeeding

[xii]People (1) who think that a female teacher who is HIV-positive and is not sick should be allowed to continue teaching, (2) who would buy fresh vegetables from a shopkeeper or vendor who is HIV-positive, (3) who would not want to keep secret that a family member is HIV-positive, and (4) who would be willing to care for a family member with AIDS in own home.